Skip to main content

Full text of "The trinitarian inspiration of the Ignatian charism"

See other formats


The Trinitarian Inspiration 
[gnatian Charism 















—> ^ 

O IS" 

S o cn; 2 

</) °°. CD <y 
O O O) 

£ ~ CD = 


i2 # h o 

CO £ < CO 


.2 ARY 


33/3 • MAY 2001 


The Seminar is composed of a number of Jesuits appointed from their provinces in 
the United States. 

It concerns itself with topics pertaining to the spiritual doctrine and prac- 
tice of Jesuits, especially United States Jesuits, and communicates the results to the 
members of the provinces through its publication, STUDIES IN THE SPIRITUALITY OF 
JESUITS. This is done in the spirit of Vatican II's recommendation that religious 
institutes recapture the original inspiration of their founders and adapt it to the 
circumstances of modern times. The Seminar welcomes reactions or comments in 
regard to the material that it publishes. 

The Seminar focuses its direct attention on the life and work of the Jesuits 
of the United States. The issues treated may be common also to Jesuits of other 
regions, to other priests, religious, and laity, to both men and women. Hence, the 
journal, while meant especially for American Jesuits, is not exclusively for them. 
Others who may find it helpful are cordially welcome to make use of it. 


William A. Barry, S.J., directs the tertianship program and is a writer at Cam- 
pion Renewal Center, Weston, MA (1999). 

Richard A. Blake, S.J., teaches film studies at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, 
MA (1998). 

Philip J. Chmielewski, S.J., teaches religious social ethics at Loyola University, 
Chicago, LL (1998). 

Richard J. Hauser, S.J., teaches theology and directs the graduate programs in 
theology, ministry, and spirituality at Creighton University, Omaha, NE 

James F. Keenan, S.J., teaches moral theology at Weston Jesuit School of Theol- 
ogy, Cambridge, MA (2000). 

Thomas M. Lucas, S.J., chairs the Department of Fine and Performing Arts and 
teaches therein at the University of San Francisco, CA (1998). 

Douglas W. Marcouiller, S.J., teaches economics at Boston College, Chestnut 
Hill, MA (2000). 

Thomas P. O'Malley, S.J., is associate dean of arts and sciences and teaches in 
the honors program at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (2000). 

John W Padberg, S.J., is chairman of the Seminar, editor of STUDIES, and direc- 
tor and editor at the Institute of Jesuit Sources (1986). 

William R. Rehg, S.J., teaches philosophy at St. Louis University, St. Louis, 
MO (2000). 

The opinions expressed in STUDIES are those of the individual authors thereof. 
Parentheses designate year of entry as a Seminar member. 

Copyright © 2001 and published by the Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality 
3601 Lindell Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63108 
(Tel. 314-977-7257; Fax 314-977-7263) 

The Trinitarian Inspiration 
of the ignatian charism 

Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 


33/3 • MAY 2001 

■•■•■•■•■•■•■■■•■•■•■•■•■•■ ■■■■•■•■■■■■•■■■■■■■•■■■•■•.•■•■•■■■■■■■•■•.■.■.■.■■■■■■■■•■•■•■•■■■ •■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■•■ 

Inexplicably, at the bottom of page 7 of the March 2001 
issue of STUDIES, "Unexpected Consequences" by James F. 
Keenan, S.J., some lines and a footnote did not print out 
properly. Surrounded by some of the context, printed in 
italics, these lines, printed in roman, should have read as 

... to the Church of England. As the noted historian Brad 
Gregory writes, "Persons' s strategy seriously backfired." 19 

The success of Bunny's Puritanizing Persons 's Direc- 
tory was remarkable. Bunny found in Persons' s work, which 
spoke to Puritans more than did any other, the first founda- 
tional text for the spiritual literature of the Puritans. In 
1585 (after having . . . 

19 "True and Zealous Service of God," 267. 

Of all things . . . 

About twenty years ago I entertained a delegation of academics from the 
People's Republic of China. They were professors of philosophy at one of the 
institutions of higher education in Communist China who were on a research visit to 
United States universities and schools of theology. While in Boston and in Cam- 
bridge, they visited several of the consortium schools in the Boston Theological 
Institute, including Harvard Divinity School and Weston Jesuit School of Theology. 
I received them in my office at Weston. That the building a century before had been 
the home of Charles Sanders Peirce, the great American philosopher of pragmatism 
and semiotics, was of great interest to them. But they were even more interested in 
what Catholics thought religion was, how it differed from theology, how the 
theology was taught, and how the Catholic Church interacted with the American 
state. On the latter subject I tried to get in at least several strong comments on a 
universal Church not necessarily conflicting with a particular nation's independence. 

All of this came to mind as I recently read a fascinating article, "Christian 
Spirituality at the University of Peking" by Andre Cnockaert, a Belgian Jesuit, 
published in the Belgian journal of spirituality Vie consacree (September-October 
2000). The article dealt with interchanges among Chinese philosophers from the 
University of Peking, the most important and prestigious of Chinese universities, and 
Belgian professors from the Catholic University of Louvain and the Jesuit University 
Faculty of Philosophy in Antwerp. Especially interesting was the account of the 
great interest in and serious work done by one of the Chinese researchers on Jan 
Ruysbroeck, the great Flemish mystic. The Devotio Moderna, Thomas a Kempis, and 
The Imitation of Christ, which Ignatius so appreciated, count Ruysbroeck among their 
direct influences. As Father Cnockaert remarked, from the seventeenth century on, 
Jesuits with expertise in many fields lived and worked at the imperial court of China, 
and the history of the relations of China and the West has recorded many a tragic 
phase; but who would have thought that research professors from an officially atheist 
China would be doing original research and publication on Christian mystics at a 
Jesuit faculty? Maybe the remark by Andre Malraux, the great French novelist, 
essayist, and French minister of culture, was right: "The twenty-first century will be 
spiritual or it won't be at all." 

Recently the scholastics and brothers in formation in the Jesuit Assistancy 
of East Asia and Oceania met in Yogyakarta, Indonesia; stories by and about them 
appeared in the assistancy magazine. Simply seeing the photos of that group of young 
Jesuits from Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Micronesia, Philippines, 
Korea, Singapore, and Thailand and reading about them should bring a smile of joy. 
The articles take in all the years of a Jesuit's training from the novitiate to the 
threshold of the priesthood. Too often we get caught up in the details of our own 
province and our own assistancy alone and forget about the vibrant fife of the 
Society of Jesus elsewhere. It is surely a vibrant life there in East Asia and Oceania, 


and it reaches across province boundaries, if one is to judge from the stories. They 
include, for example, the story of a novice in Australia; a Thai studying philosophy 
in the Philippines; an Indonesian with a youth-music ministry in public high schools; 
a Batak from North Sumatra spending his regency in small village schools; a Japanese 
with a master's degree, specializing in plant physiology, who is now in theology; 
another theologian, this one of Chinese ancestry in the Philippines, who had been 
doing work in electrical engineering before entering the Jesuits; and an Indonesian 
deacon soon to be ordained to the priesthood who as a regent worked in East Timor 
with refugees and who hopes to serve as a Jesuit in China. It makes one want to say 
a prayer of thanks for the generosity and variety of God's gifts to the Society. 

So much for the present. Now to the past and a story that may inspire the 
drama departments in our schools or at least will stimulate "producers with a low 
budget and a lively imagination." Franz Lang (1654-1725), a famous German Jesuit, 
wrote those words in a 1727 book published in Munich, Imagines symbolical, a 
wardrobe catalog that ranges from a (acedia) to z (zephyr). The following are among 
the suggestions for clothing the symbolic characters in Jesuit plays of his era. 
Concupiscence is to ride on the back of a crocodile while sensuously stroking a 
partridge. Sloth should mount the stage leading a tortoise, carrying a slack or 
stringless bow over his shoulder, and languidly cooling himself with a fan. Meekness 
has a lamb in his arms and leads along an elephant. Curiosity comes on in a long 
cloak embroidered with ears and frogs. Detraction sports a trumpet and a sword. 
Gossip has crickets chirping in his hair and plays an out-of-tune bagpipe. Miserliness 
carries scales and a fat wallet labeled "for a rainy day." History rides in on the back 
of Father Time, gray-bearded and with a scythe, all the while looking over his 
shoulder, holding a quill in one hand and writing paper in the other. If people can't 
guess what these characters represent, Lang suggests, as a last resort, that it may help 
at times if the characters carry signs with "large-lettered ID's." Stage props were 
another item of interest. At Munich in 1647, for a production of a play called Judas 
Macchabeus, the following were listed as "necessary for the action": a lightning storm, 
two comets, a large animated eagle with a scepter in one claw and a sword in the 
other, a tawny lion, a seven-headed monster, a triumphal chariot with twelve small 
eagles designed so that they can dance to the music of the play, and, for a lasting 
impression, three altars constructed in such a way that on cue they could collapse. 

Ignatius surely could not have imagined all this when in May 1556, in a 
letter to Franz Coster, a Dutch Jesuit whom he sent to found a new college in Graz, 
Austria, he told him to invite the populace to attend the college theater because 
"plays that are open to the public will encourage the actors, and bring some credit to 
their teachers." But then, Ignatius probably also could not have imagined another one 
of Lang's works, a 1717 book entitled Theater of Ascetical Solitude: Moral Doctrines 
Put to Music according to the Spiritual Exercises. 

John W. Padberg, S.J. 



Foreword: John W. Padberg, S.J., "The Legacy of Father Arrupe" vii 

Letter of V. Rev. Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, S.J. ix 

The Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism 

Introduction l 

I. The Start of It All: The Call at the Cardoner (1522) 3 

II. Between the Cardoner and La Storta (1522-1537) 13 

III. Acceptance and Confirmation: La Storta (1537) 18 

IV. The Trinitarian Peak: The Spiritual Journal 

(February 1544-February 1545) 24 

V. The Ignatian Charism Seen in the Trinitarian Light 30 

VI. The Continuing Search 37 

An Invocation to the Trinity 47 

Reflections on Fr. Arrupe's Address 

Richard A. Blake, S.J., "Perception of Man and Mission" 50 

William A. Barry, S.J, "Getting It Right" 51 

Philip J. Chmielewski, S.J, "Portrait and Landscape" 53 

James F. Keenan, S.J, "A Model of Intimacy" 56 


The Road from 
La Storta 

Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, S.J., 
on Ignatian Spirituality 

"The vision of La Storta has not been given to us 
so that we might stop to gaze at it. No, it is the 
light in which the Jesuit regards the whole world." 

These words are from a homily on the anniver- 
sary of St. Ignatius's vision at La Storta. Father 
Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, superior general of the 
Society of Jesus, challenges Jesuits and their 
associates to consider their mission as they follow 
Ignatius along the road from La Storta into the 
wide world. In this collection of twenty essays, 
Father Kolvenbach proposes ways of understand- 
ing this mission from spiritual, analytical, and 
socio-pastoral perspectives. 

xv + 300 pages $28.95 

ISBN 1-880810-40-9 plus postage 


The Legacy of Father Arrupe 
by John W. Padberg, S.J. 

Jt_/arlier this year, Fr. General wrote to the whole Society to recall the tenth 
anniversary of the death of Fr. Pedro Arrupe, twenty-eighth general of the 
Society of Jesus. That letter is reprinted in this issue of STUDIES immediately 
after these remarks of mine. Soon after writing the letter. Fr. Kolvenbach 
participated in an interview with Vatican Radio on the occasion of that 
anniversary. In the interview he noted that "the personage of Fr. Arrupe is 
still so present to all of us that it was only natural that on the tenth anniver- 
sary of his death the Society of Jesus would want to thank the Lord for his 
witness of fidelity and the authenticity of his consecrated life." Fr. General 
has invited us all to commemorate Fr. Arrupe's apostolic life and to give 
thanks to God for that life and for the Ignatian vision that it incarnated. 

The members of the Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality thought that 
they might best respond to that invitation by making available to all the 
readers of STUDIES one of the last and most important of all Fr. Arrupe's 
writings. Hence this issue, "The Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian 

In May of 1980, when Fr. Arrupe met with the United States 
provincials, he told them in an informal session that there were five docu- 
ments that he thought might constitute a kind of spiritual legacy, a state- 
ment of his best hopes and prayers for the Society of Jesus. Two of those 
documents were letters and three of them were addresses. The first of those 
letters, "The Genuine Integration of Spiritual Life and Apostolate," he wrote 
on November 1, 1976, the year after the Thirty-second General Congrega- 
tion ended. Almost a year later, on October 19, 1977, he wrote another 
letter, this one entitled "On Apostolic Availability." Next, in his concluding 
address to the congregation of procurators that took place from September 
27 to October 5, 1978, he spoke of the challenges facing the Society in 
implementing the Thirty-second General Congregation, the Ignatian criteria 
that would help thereunto, and some concrete means for carrying out that 
implementation. This address, as did the two following talks, concluded with 
a prayer— in this instance to the Holy Spirit. On January 18, 1979, he spoke 
at the conclusion of the course on Ignatian Spirituality at CIS, the Centrum 
Ignatianum Spiritualitatis in Rome, taking as his subject "Our Way of 
Proceeding." In that address he gave specific examples of what the phrase 
meant for Ignatius and the First Companions, how it was expressed in the 
Constitutions and by Nadal. He went on to describe what our way of 
proceeding might mean for the Society today, as it seeks to put into effect 
the teachings of Vatican II, and what specific means might help us achieve a 
way of proceeding appropriate to the Society. It is interesting to note that 



this letter contains brief, blunt descriptions of "certain types who seem less 
clearly to have the basic elements of the Society's way of proceeding. * 
Arrupe calls these types the full-time protestor, the professionalist, the 
irresponsible, the purely political activist, and the fanatically traditionalist. 
Fr. Arrupe could well describe them; he had at times to suffer them and 
their activities. "Our Way of Proceeding" concludes with "a prayer to Christ 
our model." Both that prayer and the previous one and the subsequent 
prayer in the last of those addresses are all rich in citations from Sacfed 

The last of those five legacies, the one here presented, is the longest, the 
most wide-ranging, and the most profound of them. It too was given at the 
conclusion of a course at CIS, on February 8, 1980. It begins by ranging from 
the personal experiences of the Trinity with which Ignatius was gifted, 
especially at the Cardoner, to the years and activities after the Cardoner, to 
La Storta, and to the experiences detailed in the fragments of his Spiritual 
Journal that escaped destruction. Then Fr. Arrupe goes on to talk about the 
Ignatian charism seen in the vfrinitarian light and asks that "basing ourselves 
on the data of revelation elaborated by theology, [we] try to see other 
aspects that he saw but of which he has told us nothing, . . . [because] in 
this way, we will be able to clarify and round out other important elements 
in his charism. For we can hardly doubt that the Ignatian charism, or at 
least our understanding and application of it, admits of development." At the 
end of such a "continuing search," Fr. Arrupe places a quotation from 
Nadal, who, as he quite rightly says, was best informed about the Ignatian 
charism and in his commentaries of more than four centuries ago extended it 
to the whole Society. 

I hold it for certain that this privilege granted to our father Ignatius is given 
to the Society also, and that his grace of prayer and contemplation is 
prepared for all of us in the Society, since it is linked with our vocation. 
Let us place the perfection of our prayer and the contemplation of the 
Trinity, then, in love and in the union of charity, which includes our 
neighbors too by the ministries of our vocation. 

Fr. Arrupe follows his address again with a prayer, an invocation to 
the Trinity that is again redolent of Scripture, the Exercises, the Spiritual 
Journal, Nadal's commentaries, and the Formula of the Institute. A year later, 
on February 6, 1981, Fr. Arrupe gave his last major address before a stroke 
silenced his voice on August 7, 1981. It was entitled "Rooted and Grounded 
in Love." He himself was surely an example of such rooting and grounding 
in love. 

Four members of the seminar follow the text of the address with 
brief commentaries. They and the other members can think of no better 
way to commemorate the anniversary of Fr. Arrupe's death than again to 
make widely available to the readers of STUDIES this very important and 
deeply moving part of his legacy. 


Letter of Father General to the Whole Society 

Dear Fathers and Brothers, P.C. 

Ten years ago, on the eve of the feast of the Japanese martyrs, the 
Lord of the vine called to himself his companion on the road, Fr. Pedro 
Arrupe. This letter is meant to commemorate briefly his apostolic life and 
death and to invite all Jesuits to celebrate a Mass of thanksgiving on the 
sixth of February, in community if possible. 

We recall more than fifty years of intense missionary activity under 
the guidance of the Spirit and more than ten years of increasingly incapaci- 
tated existence, borne also in the same Spirit with the same apostolic intent. 
Like any prophetic witness, Fr. Arrupe was a sign of contradiction, not 
always understood or understood wrongly, within the Society and outside. 
His forthright speech left no one indifferent, especially when he spoke of the 
Spirit that renews the Church and works, for the benefit of the Church, at 
the renewal of consecrated life and of life in the Society. 

He did not hesitate, especially as superior general, to send to various 
parts of the world his friends in the Lord with the mission, in word and in 
act, to promote justice with and for the poor as expression of the Gospel: to 
inculturate that Gospel, in encounters with men and women of goodwill, in 
all states of life and religions, including modern unbelief. In response, how 
can we forget his pressing appeal to the needs of the poor, the refugees, and 
the displaced, in a world more and more inhospitable? 

For us and with us, Fr. Arrupe discerned the signs of the Kingdom 
and of its coming among us. He knew how difficult it is to prophecy, 
especially about the future, as the Chinese proverb says. He was consumed 
with a passion for the future of the Church, of consecrated life and directly 
of the Society of Jesus. In an address to the Union of General Superiors at 
the end of May 1974, he spoke words that find an echo in our encounter of 
last September at Loyola: 

We can have no doubt that the service we are called to render to the 
Church and to the people of our time is the reason for our existence and 
the guarantee of our survival. What is useless has lost its reason to be. This 
desire to serve must lead us to study the charism of our founders, to know 
their intentions, and to find their appropriate expressions now and in the 

We should not worry about opposition and resistance that can come 
from unexpected directions. The Spirit follows ways difficult to discern for 
those who do not possess or do not know how to recognize the fundamen- 
tal or religious charism when applied to new situations. On the other hand, 
any reform or change must be made by people of deep spirituality and 
possessed by a strong zeal for the glory of God and the service of the 
Church. Humility, obedience, and a firm grasp of the Gospel are necessary. 
If our religious congregations have people of this stamp, we need not fear. 
The difficulties indicate that we are on the right path. 


This was Fr. Arrupe's grasp of the future, as much during his years 
of missionary activity as during the long period of his illness when, along 
with so many of his Jesuit companions, he continued his mission to pray 
and suffer for the Church and for the Society. Knowing that he "was placed 
with the Son" carrying his Cross, he was able to bear the burden of his 
responsibilities and to face the challenges of his time. He referred to this in 
his final homily at the chapel of La Storta: "True, I have had my difficulties, 
both big and small; but never has God failed to stand by me. And now 

more than ever I find myself in the hands of this God who has taken hold 

c » 
or me. 

He shared the prayer of St. Ignatius that in health or in sickness, in 
a long or a short life, the mission to God's glory continues to be accom- 

When, on the evening of February 5, 1991, Brother Bandera an- 
nounced that the Lord had just called his faithful servant to himself, we 
spontaneously intoned a "Salve Regina" of thanksgiving. May our Eucharist 
of February 6 renew this fervent thanks to the Father for the life of Pedro 
Arrupe and for the Ignatian vision that he incarnated. Each of us can then 
"reflect in himself and consider . . . what he ought to offer to his Divine 
Majesty" [SpEx 234). 

I offer you my very best wishes with the assurance of my continued 
prayer for all of you. 

Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, S.J. 

Superior General 

Rome, January 18, 2001 


In this issue of STUDIES, the following abbreviations are used. They will be 
explained in greater detail as they occur in the text. 

Commentlnst: Commentarii de Instituto Societatis Iesu 

ConsNorms: Constitutions of the Society of Jesus and Their Complementary 


FN: Fontes narrativi 

MHSI: Monumenta historica Societatis Iesu 

MN: Monumenta Nadal 

MonCons 1: Monumenta Constitutionum prcevia 

PilgTest: Pilgrim's Testament ("autobiography") 

SpEx: Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius 

Spjr: Spiritual Journal (Diary) of St. Ignatius 


The Trinitarian Inspiration 
of the ignatian charism 


1 Last year, in 1979, when I accepted the invitation of the Ignatian Center 
of Spirituality to give the closing talk in its Ignatian course, I took as my 
topic the phrase that synthesized for Ignatius and his first companions the 
practical application of the Society's charism: "Our Way of Proceeding." 1 
The thesis that I propounded was that a proper understanding and applica- 
tion of "our way of proceeding" enables the Society today, in a line of 
historical continuity, to attain the double objective that Vatican II has set for 
religious institutes: a return to the sources of their particular charism and at 

"This Institute or way of proceeding, as Father Ignatius calls it" Qeronimo 
Nadal, "Exhortationes Complutenses 3," in Commentarii de Institute Societatis Iesu, vol. 5 
of Epistolce et monumenta P. Hieronymi Nadal, vol. 90 of the Monumenta historica 
Societatis Iesu, ed. Michael Nicolau, S.J. (Rome, 1962), 304. Hereafter, these sources will 
be cited as Commentlnst, MN, and MHSI. All translations in this address seem to be the 
work of Fr. Arrupe, so the texts are not necessarily identical to those found in the English 
versions cited below. 

Born of Basque ancestry on Nov. 14, 1907, in Bilbao, Spain, Fr. Pedro Arrupe 
studied medicine before entering the Society of Jesus in 1927. When the Society was exiled 
from Spain, he pursued his studies in Belgium, the Netherlands, and the United States. 
Sent as a missionary to Japan in 1939, he served as master of novices and eventually 
provincial of that land. The Thirty-first General Congregation elected him general in 
1965, in which capacity he actively served until he suffered a debilitating stroke in 1981. 
After resigning from the generalate, he spent the last ten years of his life in retirement in 
the Jesuit Curia until his death on February 5, 1991. Many of his writings have been 
published by the Institute of Jesuit Sources. 

This address, originally delivered during a course at the Ignatian Center of 
Spirituality in Rome, was among several documents from Fr. Arrupe published in 1980 
by the New Orleans Province. 

2 4* Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 

the same time an adaptation to the changed conditions of the times. 2 I am 
happy to say that, judging by the news I receive from everywhere in the 
Society, those reflections have helped not a few Jesuits to advance in the 
renewal which the council, and later the Thirty-second General Congrega- 
tion, invited us, indeed, urged us to pursue. 

2 That talk, "Our Way of Proceeding," began from the Ignatian charism, 
descending then through various levels of application to the "changed 

conditions of the times." Today, starting once again from the charism of 
Ignatius, I propose to proceed in the reverse direction, moving backward, up 
to the heights, all the way to the supreme and initial starting point: those 
experiences of Ignatius from which everything flows and which are the only 
ones that explain, in their ultimate meaning, both his spiritual self and his 
basic intuition. In a word, his Trinitarian inner life. 

3 With this in view, then, I propose to briefly analyze Ignatius's three most 
important spiritual experiences — those at the river Cardoner near Manresa 

and in the chapel of La Storta at the gates of Rome, and those described in 
his Spiritual Journal— -to bring 

out the relationship between «.^^_^___»«^.^«__^«_ 

the Trinitarian context of . . n f _ . 

«! i ji A _ + I propose to briefly analyze Ignatius s 

those experiences and the mat- f i 

uration in his mind of the three most important spiritual experi- 

germinal idea of the Society. ences-tbose at the river Cardoner, 

Next, I will pause over certain those in the chapel of La Storta, and 

of his ideas that were more those described in his Spiritual Jour- 

formally explicitated in those nal— to bring out the relationship 

Trinitarian illuminations, and between the Trinitarian context of 

finally I will point out certain t jy 0Se experiences and the maturation in 

other elements of the Ignatian hi$ mind Q j the germinal idea 

charism that, as theology of the Society. 
shows, can receive from the 

Trinity their most vivid clari- ^ — — — — — ^^ 
fication. This mental process 

has a clear Ignatian precedent. In his Journal we see him as he seeks for 
light, alternately "looking upward," or "coming down to the letter" or "in 
the middle," 3 that is, feeling himself immersed in the Trinitarian light, or 

2 "Perfects caritatis," in Vatican Council II: The Conciliar and Post Conciliar 
Documents, ed. Austin Flannery, O.P. (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1975), no. 2 (p. 637 f.). 

3 "Ephemeris S. P. N. Ignatii," in Monumenta Constitutionum prcevia, vol. 1 of 
Sancti Ignatii de Loyola Constitutiones Societatis Iesu, from Monumenta Ignatiana, vol. 63 of 
MHSI (Rome, 1934), 86-158. This work, usually cited as the Spiritual Journal or Spiritual 


Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism •%• 3 

seizing the earthly reality of things, or "rather in the middle," with Jesus the 
Mediator who brought the extremes together and joined them. 

4 Not everything in these pages will be new. The biographers of St. Igna- 
tius and the specialists in his spirituality, some more and some less and 

from varying angles of approach, have repeatedly dealt with this topic. But I 
do not know if Jesuits of today see this Trinitarian origin of the Ignatian 
charism with sufficient clarity and force, and I feel inclined and almost 
morally compelled to make it more real to them. I believe that neither the 
Society's way of proceeding nor its radical charism can be adequately 
understood and appreciated unless we mount up to the very top, to the 
Trinity. In the return to the sources that Vatican II called for, the Society 
cannot stop without going all that distance. Only in the light of Ignatius's 
Trinitarian intimacy can we Jesuits understand, accept, and live the Society's 
charism, not because it is the historical legacy coming down from the 
intuition, reflection, lawmaking — and leadership — of a man, however en- 
dowed with genius he was, but because, as we know, by a design of Provi- 
dence that should fill us simultaneously with humility and loyalty, it is a 
vocation inspired by Ignatius's contemplation of the loftiest mysteries. 

I. The Start of It All: The Call at the Cardoner (1522) 

5 Here we must make an initial observation. Ignatius's entire mystical and 
Trinitarian adventure is practically imposed on him; it is a divine initia- 
tive, a "mystical invasion that overpowered his soul at his very conversion to 
God and never again left him." 4 Nothing we know enables us to foretell the 
mystical turn that his spiritual life will take when he leaves Loyola, a scant 
eight months after being wounded. He has read the Legenda aurea and the 
Life of Christ. He has a devotion to St. Peter and feels a desire to emulate St. 
Francis of Assisi and St. Dominic. He is a new convert still living chivalric 
dreams; he visits the sanctuaries of our Lady, wants to outstrip the saints in 
their holy feats, measures his sorrow for sin by the harshness of his pen- 
ances, and plans to go to Jerusalem "barefoot, eating nothing but herbs, and 

Diary, is not readily available in English translation, although the Institute of Jesuit 
Sources has an English translation of it in preparation. We will refer to this source as Spjr, 
followed by the date. Here the reference is to Ignatius's entry for March 7, 1544. The 
Monumenta Constitutionum prcevia will be cited as MonCons 1, followed by a colon and a 
page number. 

Joseph de Guibert, S.J., The Jesuits: Their Spiritual Doctrine and Practice, trans. 
William J. Young, S.J., ed. George E. Ganss, S.J. (St. Louis: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 
1964; originally published as La Spiritualite de la Compagnie de Jesus [Rome, 1964]), 55. 

4 * Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 

undergoing all the other rigors that he saw the saints had endured" 5 — and all 
this not only because of his devotion to Christ but also, and principally, out 
of a sheer desire for penance. The same can be said of his devotion to our 
Lady, whose sanctuaries dot trie path of his passage toward a new life. Before 
the altar of the Virgin at Montserrat he leaves "his sword and dagger"— the 
supreme gesture of the worldly soldier— and spends the night in vigil over 
his new spiritual arms. 6 

6 When Ignatius, "so as not to be recognized," withdraws to isolated 
Manresa, he brings as his spiritual baggage only the firm decision to make 

a radical change of life, a determination to expiate his sins — such is the 
nature of his austerities, vigils, and enervating hours of prayer— and the 
desire for light to guide his new life. He will also "note down certain things 
in a book that he carefully carried with him and by which he was greatly 
consoled" (ibid., [11]): this is the Ignatius who is reflective and methodical 
by nature. His natural qualities crystallize and take on new forms and 
expressions: absolute coherence between his thinking and his life, a will of 
iron, and a singular capacity for introspection and analysis. 

7 The first four months of the eleven he will stay at Manresa are a desert 
across which blows a fire that purifies his past: penances, vigils, a deliber- 

Tately slovenly and repulsive exterior, and above all a surrender to prayer. He 
lives this spiritual maceration "in a state of great and constant happiness, 
without having any knowledge of the inward things of the spirit" (PilgTest 
[20]). It is the destruction of the carnal and mundane self of which he will 
speak in the Exercises. 7 There follows a second period of inner turbulence, 
during which the resistance of his body and his spirit reach a crisis. Is this 
sort of life bearable? What is the value of it if the obsession with his past 

Luis Gon^alves da Camara, S.J., "Acta P. Ignatii ... ex ore ipsius patris," in 
Fontes narrativi de S. Ignatio de Loyola, 3 vols., from the Monumenta Ignatiana, vols. 66, 
73, and 85 of MHSI (Rome, 1943-60), 1:355-507. Available in English is A Pilgrim's 
Testament: The Memoirs of Saint Ignatius of Loyola, trans. Parmananda R. Divarkar, S.J. (St. 
Louis: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1995). Although this work is often and less accurately 
referred to as Ignatius's Autobiography, we will cite it as PilgTest, followed by the 
traditional paragraph numbers, in this instance, 8. Citations from the Fontes narrativi will 
be cited as FN, followed by the volume number and the page number, e.g., in this 
instance, FN 1:355-507. 

6 PilgTest [17 f.]. A few paragraphs further on ([21]), Ignatius refers to himself as 
"el nuevo soldado de Cristo," which shows that he saw his conversion against a 
background of chivalry and warfare. 

St. Ignatius of Loyola, The Spiritual Exercises, trans, with commentary by 
George E. Ganss, S.J. (St. Louis: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1992), 82-89. We will refer to 
this source as SpEx, followed by the traditional marginal numbers. 


Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism 

and present sins continues? It is a time of scruples and temptations, even of 
suicide. But it is also the beginning of "great changes in his soul . . . that he 
had never experienced before" (PilgTest [2]). His capacity for introspection, 
for discernment, will save him: "From the lessons God had given him, he 
now had some experience of the diversity of spirits" ([25]). Consolation and 
desolation come upon him, one after the other. 

8 Then the third phase of his stay at Manresa starts. God begins to make 
his presence felt, with elemental, pictorial representations, acting with 

him "as a schoolteacher deals with a child" ([27]). These representations have 
to do with subjects that will be dominant all the rest of his life: the creation 
of the world, the Eucharist, the humanity of Christ, and, in the shape of 
very concrete images, the Trinity. The earlier references to saints in his 
autobiography now disappear. In their place, he bursts into a surprising 
paragraph about "his great devotion to the Most Holy Trinity," which is 
becoming a dominant theme in his spiritual life, to the point that "he could 
not stop talking about the Most Holy Trinity, with many different compari- 
sons and great joy and consolation" ([28]). 

9 Ignatius has survived the testing of penances and desolation, and this third 
phase of his stay at Manresa reveals a greater maturity and serenity and an 

apostolic thrust. "After God began to comfort him, seeing the fruit he was 
obtaining when dealing with souls, he gave up those extremes he had 
formerly observed, and he now cut his nails and his hair" ([29]). So far, he 
has done what lay in his power: an unreserved surrender, a merciless purifi- 
cation, a spiritually discerned acceptance of God's lights, an availability for 
apostolic conversations and activity. It was, humanly speaking, all that was 
needed to ready him for the definitive sign. And it was not long in coming. 

10 "That so great illumination. " It was in August or September of 1522, 
barely fifteen months after his wound at Pamplona and seven after his 

coming to Manresa. In that brief time he has gone through a very long 
spiritual journey. He goes out of Manresa one day to make a devotional visit 
to an outlying church. The road follows the edge of a steep hillside, at the 
foot of which flows the Cardoner. 

As he went along occupied with his devotions, he sat down for a little 
while with his face toward the river. . . . the eyes of his understanding 
began to be opened. Not that he saw any vision; rather, understanding and 
knowing many things, both spiritual things and matters of faith and 
learning, with so intense an enlightenment that everything seemed new to 
him. Though there were many, he cannot set forth the details that he 
understood then, except that he experienced a great clarity in his under- 
standing. So much so that in the whole course of his life, through sixty-two 
years, even if he gathered up all the many helps he has had from God and 

6 * Pedro Arrupe, S J. 

all the many things he has learned and added them together, he does not 
think they would amount to as much as he received on that one occasion. 
After this had lasted for a good while, he went to kneel before a nearby 
cross to give thanks to God. (PilgTest [30f.]) 

11 Ignatius's mention of "that so great illumination" is extremely signifi- 
cant. It has been for him a sort of Pentecost that marks an end of his 

past and kindles the light of a different future. When he dictates his autobi- 
ography in 1555, the year before his death, the effulgence of that mystical 
experience, of a loftiness that his Journal reveals to us, is still shining bril- 
liantly in his memory. I believe that there are three angles from which we 
can view that enlightenment: 

12 1. The nature of the grace received. Let us remember that the words 
Ignatius uses are not casual. He is at the end of his life, when his sense 

of exactitude has grown very strong and his mystical encounters have left 
him with unparalleled experience. 8 After his initial mention of "that so great 
illumination," Ignatius puts great emphasis on a distinction: "not that he saw 
. . . ; rather, understanding and knowing." That is to say, there is a radical, 
qualitative change with regard to his earlier illuminations, which were only 
in his imagination and apt only for rudimentary manifestations. These are 
now "intellectual lights, directly infused by God into his intelligence. At 
Manresa, Ignatius moves into the highest infused contemplation." 9 He also 
stresses a quantitative aspect, saying that he received more help and knowl- 
edge on that occasion than in all the rest of his life. That may have been an 
overstatement, though hyperbole was not a habitual defect in Ignatius. But 
even if it were an overstatement, the fact of falling into it here would not be 
without significance. 

13 2. Content of the illumination. The terms that Ignatius used are very 
exact, but very generic too. Polanco says that "Father Ignatius explained 

in detail to no one the secret of this vision, since it was so hard to commu- 
nicate his experiences. But he did mention the fact to them." 10 And he had 
good reason to do so. The enlightenment of the Cardoner is the most 
influential spiritual fact in Ignatius's life previous to La Storta, and that gives 

"He has so clear a memory of things, and even of the more important words, 
that he recounts something that happened ten, fifteen, or more times; exactly as it 
happened, he puts it before his hearers' eyes; and any long statement about things of 
importance, he repeats it word for word" (Luis Gon£alves da Camara, "Memoriale," no. 
99., in FN 1:585 {.). 

De Guibert, Jesuits, 13f . 

Juan de Polanco, S.J., "De vita Patris Ignatii et de Societatis Iesu initiis" (1574), 
no. [16], in FN 2:527. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism 

it a transcendental importance in that pre-foundation period up until 1538, 
when he was gathering his friends from Paris and mulling over the germinal 
ideas of the Society. While he was winning them over, one by one, "they 
were resolute in following Father Ignatius and his way of proceeding." 11 In 
those long years of intimacy and confidences, Ignatius no doubt informed 
them about what had happened by the Cardoner— without going into 
details, as Polanco notes, but still telling them in general what it had meant. 

14 It is easy to glean in the volumes of the Pontes narrativi of the Monu- 
menta historica a dozen descriptions and references, veiled or explicit, 
about the enlightenment at the Cardoner, with superlative adjectives: 
"unusual," "exceptional," ^extraordinary." 12 The significance of the incident 
becomes clearer to them each time that Ignatius, answering questions about 
why he includes this or that point in the Constitutions, always replies: "The 
explanation will be found in 

something that happened to ^ ^^— — ^^~^^^™ 
me at Manresa." 13 They al- The enlightenment of the Cardoner is 
ways accepte is wQr , a - t ^ e most i n fl uen tial spiritual fact in 

mitted the force or his reason- T , ,. r . r n 

, j i • -i Ignatius s lite previous to La Storta. 

ing and respected his silence. ° J r 

But at the same time they all ._,______«»___-___— -___-_-__^____ 

admit, in their words and 

writings, that they see in that "extraordinary illumination," as it soon came 
to be described, the very foundation of the Ignatian charism; and they draw 
similar conclusions from his other confidences and remarks. Lainez, in the 
biographical letter on St. Ignatius that he sent to Polanco soon after the 
latter had been made secretary, seven years before Ignatius was to dictate his 
autobiography; 14 Nadal, in his conferences and dialogues; 15 Polanco, in his 
biography of the founder 16 — in a word, all of them assert in those earliest 
sources, without deformation or overstatement, the Trinitarian content of 

Juan de Polanco, S.J., "Informatio de Instituto Societatis Iesu" (1564), no. [9], 
in FN 2:309. 

12 Polanco, "Vita P. Ignatii," no. [16], in FN 2:526; Jeronimo Nadal, S.J., 
"Exhortationes Conimbricenses 3," no. [11], in FN 2:152; id., "Apologia contra censuram 
facultatis theologicae Parisiensis" (1577), no. [40], in FN 2:66. 

Jeronimo Nadal, S.J., "Dialogi pro Societate contra hsereticos" 2 (1563), no. 
[8], in FN 2:240. See also "Exhortationes Colonienses 1"; "Exhortationes Conimbricenses 
3"; and "Exhortationes Complutenses 2," and similar exhortations, in FN 2:406, 152-93. 

14 Diego Lainez, S.J., "Epistola P. Lainn" (1547), no. 12, in FN 1:82. 

See n. 15 above. 

See n. 12 above. 

8 •!• Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 

the vision by the Cardoner, the radicality of the change it worked in 
Ignatius, and its virtual founding of the Society. 

15 Let us see the testimony of each of the two biographical lines: 

• Lainez is brief in describing the content and clear in enumerating 
the effects of the Cardoner. "Ignatius was particularly helped, informed, and 
interiorly illumined. ... he began to see everything with new eyes, to 
discern and test the good and evil spirits, to relish the things of the Lord and 
to communicate them to his neighbor." 17 Three fundamental things are here 
affirmed: the transformation Ignatius underwent in his spirituality, the 
discernment he learned as a method, and the openness he acquired to the 
apostolate. In as early a document as this letter (1547), Lainez could not tell 
Polanco more. But when Polanco writes in 1574, with full information and 
no longer limited by confidentiality and restraint, he is much more explicit. 
Ignatius had "admirable illuminations about the mystery of the Most Holy 
Trinity, the creation of the world, and other mysteries of the faith." 18 So 
great were those illuminations about the Trinity that "though a simple man 
and able to read and write only Spanish, he started writing a book about it." 19 

16 • Nadal, the confidant of Ignatius during the founder's mature years, 
the one who overcame Ignatius's resistance against writing his autobiog- 
raphy, who in the words of Polanco "understood his spirit and penetrated, 
as much as anyone I know, the Society's Institute," 20 who went all around 
Europe explaining how the genesis of the Society paralleled the development 
of Ignatius's own spiritual life— this Nadal has left in his conferences and 
writings essential explanations of the content of the "extraordinary illumina- 
tion": "His intellectual eyes were opened with such an abundance and 
intensity of light that he understood and contemplated the mysteries of 
faith. ... he was shown a new truth about everything, a most exalted 
intelligence"; 21 "the principles underlying everything were opened up for 
him." 22 In his Dialogues, he is even more explicit: "Then God began to teach 
him as a schoolteacher teaches a child. There the illuminations of his 
understanding were multiplied, his ease in prayer and contemplation was 
increased, a higher intelligence of spiritual and heavenly things was infused 

17 Lainez, "Epistola," no. 10, in FN 1:80. 
See n. 12 above. 
See n. 16 above. 

20 Juan de Polanco, Sancti Ignatii de Loyola epistolce et instructiones, vol. 5, from 
the Monumenta Ignatiana, vol. 31 of the MHSI (Rome, 1965), 109. 

21 Nadal, "Dialogi," no. [8], in FN 2:239. 

22 Nadal, "Exhort. Colon. 1," no. [8], in FN 2:406. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism 

into him. There he received a penetrating knowledge (prceclaram cognitionem) 
of the Persons of the Trinity and of the divine Essence. Even more, he 
received not only a clear intelligence but an interior vision of how God 
created the world, of how the Word became flesh." 23 Nadal is a serious, 
honest witness who for long years had access to Ignatius's confidences. His 
testimony is beyond a doubt a source of great value. 

17 In any event, if we consider the enlightenment of the Cardoner as the 
extraordinary climax in a series of such illuminations that really had 

started and built up in preceding weeks, we can describe its content more or 
less this way: It is an infused intellectual illumination about the divine 
Essence and the Trinity of Persons in a generic way and, more concretely, 
about two of its operations ad extra: the Creation and the Incarnation. 
Ignatius is brought into the Trinitarian intimacy and finds himself an 
illumined spectator of the Creation and Incarnation in a Trinitarian context. 
"The descent of creatures from God and their necessary re-ascent and 
reintegration into their ultimate end, God himself, are among the most vivid 
experiences of the great enlightenment." 24 Ignatius is, without realizing it, in 
an eminently Pauline theological line. This Trinitarian context will be 
clearly detectable in the Exercises. Not only in Ignatius's presentation of the 
mystery of the Incarnation, but in the Principle and Foundation too, which 
he will write later, if we judge by the philosophical elements in it, which the 
pilgrim at Manresa was not yet educated enough to compose. 

18 3. Meaning and consequences of the illumination. Manresa was for 
Ignatius what Damascus was for St. Paul and the burning bush for 

Moses: a mysterious theophany that inaugurates and synthesizes his mission, 
a call to set out on an obscure road that will keep opening up before him as 
he follows it. 25 On the spot, Ignatius is transformed. Lainez writes a mar- 
ginal note in Camara's Pilgrims Testament: "And this left him with his 
understanding so profoundly enlightened that it seemed to him he was a 
different man and had a different intellect than he had before." 26 

19 The transformation of Ignatius is manifest. The least important change 
is that now he makes himself presentable and becomes more sociable, 

softens down his harshness, and takes on a more ordered, human rhythm of 
life. Chiefly, it is his inner self that changes: his spirituality, until then 

See n. 24 above. 

4 Pedro Leturia, S.J., "Genesis de los Ejercicios . . . y su influjo en la fundacion 
de la Compafiia de Jesus," Archivum historicum Societatis lesu 10 (1941): 32. 

25 Nadal, "Dialogi," no. [7], in FN 2:252. 

Lainez, marginal note in Spjr 30. 

10 * Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 

individualist and introspective, is turned completely around, becoming more 
and more community-directed and apostolic. His pilgrimage to Jerusalem 
loses its penitential motivation and becomes a meeting with Christ in the 
places where he lived and died, and where Ignatius will want to stay to 
continue the Lord's work. 

20 The greatest transformation, though, is that he finds a methodology for 
all his further progress, the supreme lesson with which the Lord, who 

had been guiding him like a child, brings 

the Manresa period of his schooling to its 

t~„ *+:«.,. ^^cr^r. «-*«. i~~i highest point. Let us state this in Nadal's 

Ignatius passes very logi- ** f 

jj r .1 wr j *i words: lhere he learned to discern spir- 

cally from the Word, the . „ 27 _> . urn T * , ,• 

— , . / _ , its. rolanco, who follows Lainez s line 

Trinitarian Person, to the c . , ,. „ TL 

' or testimony, says the same thing: I hat 

historical Christ whose Hght [received at the Cardoner] had to do 

land he yearns to visit, concretely (in particulari) with distinguish- 

and the perennial Christ i ng goo d and evil spirits." 28 That knowl- 

who acts in the world un- edge is all the more necessary— and will be 

til the end of time. so in the future too— for him and for the 

Society as he still perceives his apostolic 
- 1 -^^^^™^^^^™^—^ vocation in only an extremely vague way, 

and he will constantly need some tech- 
nique for clarifying it. Years later, Nadal will say that the grace of the 
Society's Institute is that we should give ourselves, "sed indefinite/* 29 to the 

21 The skill he acquired in discerning spirits gives Ignatius a salutary feeling 
of confidence. Now he can reject spiritual consolations if they come in 

the scant hours he allows himself for sleep (PilgTest [26]); and he rids himself 
of his morbid need for confessors and spiritual guides, who previously had 
only left him with anxieties and scruples. That capacity for reflecting in 
order to seek and find what most leads to cooperation with the divine plan 
for leading everything back to the Creator is the great conquest of the 
Cardoner; it is the point where the experiences of Manresa crystallize, 
ultimately making it possible for the Society to come into existence. 

See n. 23 above. 
28 Polanco, "Vita P. Ignatii," no. [16], in FN 2:526. 

29 Jeronimo Nadal, "Orationis observationes," in Epistolce P. Hieronymi Nadal, 
vol. 4, from the Natalis monumenta, vol. 47 of MHSI (Madrid, 1905), 696, no. 145. 
Hereafter this source will be cited as MN, followed by the volume number and the page; 
in this instance, MN 4:696. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Cbarism •!• 11 

22 The Copernican about-face that the months at Manresa and the series of 
enlightenments at the Cardoner spell for Ignatius (and ultimately for the 

birth and the charism of the Society) is evident above all in the new slant 
that the Exercises take. Specialists have established, basing themselves on 
irrefutable witnesses, that the illumination of the Cardoner belongs between 
the end of the First Week and the beginning of the Second, and that it has a 
decisive influence on the theme that the Second Week presents and in the 
direction it gets. We may consider this the crucial turning point in the 
Exercises and a reflection of his own experience: the temporal King, the 
introduction to the consideration of Different States of Life, the Three 
Degrees of Humility. If the Society of Jesus is only an institutionalized 
version of the Exercises, and specifically of that part of the -Exercises, then 
we must see the Trinitarian light of Manresa as the first glimmer that heralds 
the Society's existence. Nadal, in his 1554 conference at Salamanca, the most 
sober of all the conferences he wrote, 30 points out the close relationship 
between the Cardoner, the Exercises, and the Society: 

Here our Lord gave him the Exercises thus guiding him so that he would 
be used entirely for his service and for the salvation of souls. He showed 
him this amid devotion especially in two exercises: the Kingdom and the 
Two Standards. Here he understood his goal and what he should apply 
himself to and have as his objective in everything he did, which is the goal 
that the Society now has. 31 

Years later, in 1561, after Ignatius's death, Nadal repeats the same idea at 
Alcala with more profusion but with no less firmness on the essential point: 
"After having exercised himself for some time on the points that we call 
those of the First Week, he was brought further by the Lord, and he began 
to meditate on the life of Christ our Lord and to find devotion in it and a 
desire to imitate it; and then, at that very point, he had the desire to help 
his neighbor." 32 That Ignatius repeatedly, all through his life, appealed to 
"something that happened to me at Manresa" whenever others were trying 
to clarify how we in the Society serve our neighbor is a confirmation of the 
close connection existing between the illuminations (markedly Trinitarian, as 
we have seen) that he received there, conversion to an apostolic life through 
the central ideas of the Exercises, and the shift from an initial individual 
apostolate to an apostolate institutionalized in the Society. 

23 In these meditations and exercises, in fact, the eternal King calls every- 
one to "go with him" to extend his kingdom "to the whole world" and 

30 See FN 1:303. 

Jeronimo Nadal, S.J., "Exhortationes Salmanticenses" (1554), no. [6], in FN 1:307. 
32 Nadal, "Exhort. Complut. 2," nos. [8 f.], in FN 2:190. 

12 •!• Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 

"thus to enter into the glory of my Father." And what is this, if not to put 
oneself into that rhythm of the descent of creatures and their reintegration 
into their ultimate end through Christ which Ignatius understood in "that so 
great illumination"? Ignatius passes very logically from the Word, the 
Trinitarian Person, to the historical Christ whose land he yearns to visit, 
and the perennial Christ who acts in the world until the end of time. The 
Trinitarian framework of the contemplation of the Incarnation is based on 
this approach. And the fact that so charming a mystery as the Birth of 
Christ — the second contemplation— ends with a colloquy into which the 
cross enters, follows the same logic. There is no better comment than this 
phrase of Nadal's: "Nativitas Christi, egressus gratiae ad operationem: unde 
oratio Societatis, ex qua extensio ad ministerial 33 For Ignatius, Christ is 
above all the one sent by the Father, whose will he seeks and wants to 
accomplish in an indifference that extends even to the cross. Ignatius accepts 
the call implicit in the illumination and will reply with "offerings of greater 
value and of more importance . . . provided only it is for thy greater service 
and praise" (SpEx 98) and— in a new gesture, in "the most perfect humility," 
as long as there be "equal praise and glory"— with poverty, humiliation, and 
the cross. It is a sharing in the kenosis of Christ who comes down from the 
Father to lead all things back to him. 

24 The ancient tradition of the prcenotio Instituti finds its justification in 
this interpretation, which others have sought to carry much further. 34 
To find in the illumination of the Cardoner the initial germ of the Society, 
all we need do is appreciate the difference between the Ignatius of before and 
after Manresa, the coherence between what started there and what, in a very 
straight line, his whole life thereafter will be, precisely in virtue of the 
mysteries he contemplated and the discretion he acquired there. Isn't the 
request he makes to our Lady — and recommends that we too make in the 
colloquy of the meditation on the Two Standards written at Manresa— that 
she "obtain for me from her Son and Lord the grace to be received under his 
standard" a perfectly clear anticipation of the plea he will make to her at La 
Storta: "to be good enough to place him with her Son" (PilgTest [96])? 

33 [The birth of Christ is grace moving out into activity; this is the source of the 
prayer of the Society, from which proceeds its going out to undertake ministries.] Nadal, 
"Orationis observationes," 61; see n. 31 above. 

34 See Antonio Astrain, S.J., Historia de la Compania de Jesus en la Assistencia de 
Espana, vol. 1, 2nd ed. (Madrid, 1912), 102; also Jose Calveras, S.J., "La ilustracion del 
Cardoner y el instituto de la Compania de Jesus segun el P. Nadal," in Archivum 
historicum Societatis Iesu 25 (1956): 27-54. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism "fc 13 

II. Between the Cardoner and La Storta (1522-1537) 

25 In Ignatius's years of maturing, between his return from Jerusalem in 
1524 and his leaving Paris for Rome, he lives from the experience at the 
Cardoner. Not just from the memory of it, but from a use of its principles. 
The apostolic vector of his spirituality develops rapidly and becomes the 
dominant one. Because the apostolate requires preparation and knowledge, 
he sits on school benches and 
begins studies as serious and 

long drawn out as his charac- The genesis of the Society is, accord- 

ter demands. 35 And because j ng t0 Nadal, the group reproduction 
one cannot get into the apos- of Ignatius' s own spiritual itinerary. 

tolate fully without giving a 

full adherence to Christ, he ^ ^ ^— — 
decides to enter the priest- 
hood. Because the imitation and following of Christ brings humility, pov- 
erty, and the cross, his life is humble, poor, lived among the poor, challeng- 
ing the forces of this world. Moreover, since the King with whom Ignatius 
will collaborate calls "each and every man" to help him "conquer the whole 
world," Ignatius opens himself to the apostolic community as a form of the 
plenitude of his vocation of service. 

26 Ignatius has his inevitable ups and downs at Alcala, Salamanca, and 
Paris, gathering and losing friends. At first, he accepts those who come; 
then he goes deliberately looking for them, even tenaciously hounding 
them, 36 sometimes with immediate success, at other times succeeding only 
after a long and eventful siege, even after despairing of winning them. At 
still other times he fails. What is he after with that systematic proselytizing? 
Why that fever to form a group? Simply, to communicate to others his own 
desire for an apostolic life, following Christ in poverty and humility. They 
"remained firm in following Father Ignatius and his way of proceeding." 3 
Favre uses that phrase "following Ignatius" about himself. Following Ignatius 
means acknowledging him as a leader in the following of Christ; accepting 

Juan de Polanco, "Summarium Hispanum de origine et progressu Societatis 
Iesu," no. 33, in FN 1:169. 

Pierre Favre says, "Coduri et Broet nondum erant capti" [Codure and Broet 
were not yet snared] ("Memoriale," no. 15, in /TV 1:39). For an English translation of this 
work, see The Spiritual Writings of Pierre Favre: The Memoriale and Selected Letters and 
Instructions, trans. Edmond C. Murphy, S.J., and Martin E. Palmer, S.J. (St. Louis: 
Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1996), 68 f. 

37 Polanco, "Informatio de Instit.," no. [9], in FN 2:309 f. 

14 * Pedro Arrupe, S.J. 

his way of proceeding means assimilating his ideological and operational 
principles. The Society's way of proceeding is simply Ignatius's way: "God 
took Ignatius as a means for communicating this grace, and he wanted him 
to be the minister of this vocation, and in him he gave us a vivid example of 
our way of proceeding." 38 The genesis of the Society is, according to Nadal, 
the group reproduction of Ignatius's own spiritual itinerary. 39 It is logical 
that the group's first concrete project is to reproduce the pilgrimage to 
Jerusalem, not with the penitential approach that the pre-Manresa Ignatius 
had, however, but with the same devotion to the person of Christ and the 
same apostolic objective that was born at the Cardoner. 

27 The maturing of Ignatius is a fruit of the constant application of one of 
the most fundamental principles of his way of proceeding: discernment 

done according to the method that he himself codified at Manresa in the 
Exercises, in order to know God's will. With the same method he helps his 
companions seek and find their way. The first of them, Favre, gives us in a 
few lines a graphic description of the scene: "By God's providence, I had to 
give him lessons, and thus I began to deal with him about exterior things, 
and then about interior things too. We shared the same house and room, the 
same table and pocketbook. He was my director in things of the spirit, 
showing me the way to progress in knowledge of God's will and of my own." 40 

28 The vows of Montmartre (1534) mark the group's first moral commit- 
ment, as each member made his personal oblation. This whole episode of 

Montmartre is made up of surprising and seemingly unmotivated elements, 
whose sensus plenior will be seen only later. This is so, we must remember, 
because they were discussing only vows for the future. The vow of poverty 
will begin to bind them only after they have finished their studies. They do 
not take a vow of chastity (unless they did so privately); but then, none of 
them is a priest except Favre. They do not make a vow of obedience: the 
only authority is the moral one that Ignatius has, who has communicated to 
them his ideal and his way of proceeding. On the other hand, they make an 
apparently odd vow: to go on pilgrimage to Jerusalem "to spend their lives 
for the good of souls" there. What makes them think of Jerusalem? Where 
did that idea come from? The answer is clear: It is the Ignatian experience 

Nadal, "Exhort. Complut. 2," no. 1, in FN 2:168. This is a translation from 
the Italian manuscript. See FN 1:177 f., no. 46. See also id., "This is [our] religious Order, 
grace, Institute and way of proceeding" (Commentlnst 262, no. [33].) 

3 Ibid.; also see no. [52a], p. 287. In a long paragraph, Nadal explains this 
parallelism, going so far as to say that the life of Ignatius is the prima forma et gratia that 
the Lord gave the Society. See also FN 1:11; 2:2, 5, 6, 43, 143, 165, 227, etc. 

40 Favre, "Memonale," no. 8, in FN 1:32-33. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism •%• 15 

that is corporately reproduced now in the birth of the Society. But they add 
another clause, apparently no less odd and unmotivated: If they cannot go to 
Jerusalem in the space of a year or cannot remain there, they will "come 
back to Rome and offer themselves to the Vicar of Christ so that he may 
use them in whatever he deems to be most for the glory of God and the 
good of souls" (PilgTest [85]). This is the "papal clause," whose importance 
will prove enormous. Here we may and should ask ourselves, Why did they 
introduce this new element, the Vicar of Christ, as a determinant of their 
service and following of Christ, which is a personal relationship, or, if it is a 
group relationship, only a private one? This must have been the subject of 
one of Ignatius's elections. And it is not hard to see in that clause a reflec- 
tion of what Ignatius saw at the Cardoner: the mystical Christ, which is the 
Church, entrusted to a vicar in whom resides the supreme power and 
responsibility for teaching, sanctifying, and ruling. Ignatius's military past 
prompts him to look for a leader: he knows that snipers do not win the big 

29 We may wonder, But why Montmartre? For what purpose? Certainly, 
for the moment nothing changes in the group, since none of the two 

vows has any immediate application. In Ignatius's mind, though, that was a 
momentous step: their separate followings of Christ now take on a new, a 
group dimension under the guidance of Ignatius. Each one, like the others 
and with the others, is individually bound to Christ and, in a given hypothe- 
sis, to the Vicar of Christ. Ignatius has been the catalyzer, the provoker of 
that sudden cohesion. Can we imagine the ebullition of ideas and feelings, of 
spiritual motions and reasons for and against, that must have preceded, in 
Ignatius and in the others, the birth of that step, its preparation, and its 
realization? It meant staking their lives on a single throw of the dice. And 
the decisive motivation was simply an irrevocable decision to live a life and a 
state chosen in the Exercises. The individuals had crystallized into a group as 
they made their common apostolic ideal the end 5 and way of their lives. 

30 Studies. We must say a word about Ignatius's studies and his intellectual 
preparation. This can help us not only because these will affect the 

development of his personality, but also because they can help us to gauge 
the trustworthiness of his statements about himself, particularly in his 
Spiritual Journal, whose subject matter and terminology are so delicate, and 
to appreciate the sort of scientific preparation he chooses for the apostolate 
as he conceives it will be in the Society. 

31 Ignatius began his studies, as Lainez puts it, "for the service of our 
Lord," 41 or as the Pilgrim's Testament says, for two purposes: "to be able 

41 Lainez, "Epistola P. Lainn," no. 22, in FN 1:91 f. 

16 * Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 

to give himself more readily to the spirit and also to help souls" ([54]). There 
is in this phrase a profound meaning: Ignatius believes that the priesthood 
will enable him, first, to give himself to spiritual things more "easily," that 
is, in conditions to obtain greater fruit, by acquiring a solid intellectual basis 
for his spiritual life, and to be a more intense sharer in the saving intimacy 
with Christ; and second, "to help souls" more, because he is convinced he 
can do that effectively only with the priesthood, in the manner of the first 

32 Ignatius, who at Manresa was a "simple man," without "other letters 
than to read and write in Romance [Spanish]," 42 discerns with surprising 

clarity the need for studies. He draws that conclusion during his discernment 
at Manresa: 

Here our Lord gave him the Exercises, thus guiding him so that he would 
be used entirely for his service and for the salvation of souls. He showed 
him this amid devotion, especially in two exercises, the Kingdom and the 
Two Standards. Here he understood his goal and what he should fully 
apply himself to and have as his objective in everything he did, which is the 
goal that the Society now has. And realizing that he ought to study for that 
end, he did so in Spain and later in Paris. 43 

It is characteristic of his temperament that despite his age he wanted to do 
his studies in all seriousness, to the hilt, not only without rushing to finish, 
but actually starting all over again when he sees that he has been going too 
fast to master the material. Those studies are to last ten years, a "time of 
distraction" in which he is supported by "what he had at Manresa, which he 
was accustomed to praise and to call his primitive Church." 44 We know 
certain facts from this period that show how far the discernment and caritas 
discreta he had learned at the Cardoner had become second nature to him: 
"When he was studying, the divine office (which he attended, putting all his 
zeal into it), together with hearing Mass and some praying, since they 
delighted him, he abandoned them." 45 

33 Ignatius is not a professional theologian, and we must bear this in mind 
when reading his Journal, which in no way pretends to give a doctrinal 

illumination of the mystery of the Trinity. But he had done theological 

Lainez, "Epistola P. Lainii," no. 12, in FN 1:82, reflected also, naturally, in 
Polanco, "Summar.," no. 21, in FN 1:162. 

43 Jeronimo Nadal, S.J., "Exhortationes Salmanticenses," no. [6], in FN 1:307. 

Lainez, "Epistola P. Lainii," no. 59, in FN 1:139 f. 

45 Pedro Ribadeneira, S.J., "Dichos y hechos de N. P. Ignacio," no. [10], in FN 2:474. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism "fr 17 

studies; and despite his age, his poverty, his apostolic activities, and the 
frustration of being misunderstood, he had done them well and could justify 
them with one of the most prestigious degrees of those days, the Master of 
Arts of the University of Paris. It is not insignificant that he ranked thirtieth 
in a class of about one hundred who earned the licentiate, especially if we 
reflect that three years earlier the studious Favre and the brilliant Xavier had 
finished twenty-fourth and twenty-second. The theology that Ignatius 
studied at Paris was already based on the Summa tbeologica, which had by 
then replaced Peter Lombard's Sentences. 

34 The three years of studies in Spain and the seven at Paris are a period of 
assimilation in which caritas discreta makes him give more attention to 

his education than to spiritual or apostolic activities. His personality, 
tempered at Manresa, suffers no alteration, except for the constant progres- 
sion he made in perfecting his self-identity. "He dedicated himself to philoso- 
phy and theology with great energy and with outstanding fruit," Nadal will 
tell us, 46 who had witnessed in those same halls what he was reporting. "He 
studied his matter so thoroughly that we were astonished when we dealt 
with any difficulty in his presence." 47 Lainez, who was in a position to 
know, mentions the surprising "mastery and majesty" with which he 
expressed himself in "theological matters" and the "great understanding of 
the things of God, great attraction to them, especially to the more abstract 
and recondite matters," 48 that Ignatius revealed. Was there in Lainez's words 
a hint at some preternaturally received learning? Being a master of arts of the 
University of Paris, along with his personal devotion, was enough to 
account for Ignatius's competence and inclinations. But, being already 
marked by constantly reliving in memory that experience in the city by the 
Cardoner, he found theology a field of absorbing interest; and his studies of 
it had not failed to give him the necessary verbal and intellectual articulate- 
ness. Speaking of theological topics without requisite academic qualifications 
and studies had earlier brought down on him no small difficulties. 

35 Ordination. In April 1537, the Pope grants them permission to receive 
the priesthood. They are ordained in Venice. Then they spend a trimes- 
ter in contemplation and penance to get ready for their first Masses, which 
all of them except Ignatius celebrate that September. He will continue to put 
it off for a year and a half in the hope of celebrating it in Jerusalem, in order 
to seal there, by the reproduction of Christ's sacrifice, his encounter with 
the Lord there during his first pilgrimage fourteen years earlier. When this 

46 Nadal, "Dialogi," no. [17], in FN 2:25-53. 

47 Nadal, "Exhort. Complut. 2," no. [15], in FN 2:198. 

48 Diego Lainez, S.J., "Epistola P. Lainii," no. 56, in FN 1:136. 

18 * Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 

proves impossible, he selects the altar associated with a relic from Palestine, 
that of the Holy Crib at St. Mary Major's in Rome. In all these events, 
which are so many steps leading logically and inexorably to the founding of 
the Society, there is a harmony that we instantly recognize: the plashing of 
the Cardoner. It is a sort of constant base beat underlying and giving depth 
to his whole life, punctuating and rhythmically marking the beat, accentuat- 
ing and structuring the key passages. 

III. Acceptance and Confirmation: La Storta (1537) 

36 Ignatius, now ordained a priest but not yet having offered his first Mass, 
sets out from Venice to Rome toward the' end of October 1537. He 

brings with him two members of the group that he calls, in a letter written 
at the time, "my nine friends in the Lord." 49 All of them share the ideal and 
lifestyle (we can't yet speak of a charism) that Ignatius gave them: it is 
certainly his vision of things. All have gone through the same experience 
that made Ignatius what he is; consequently, they are so like him now, and 
the group is so close-knit a unit. The instrument that produced the change 
was the Exercises. They are going to Rome without any great motivation, 
because only six months have passed of the ye'ar's wait they have bound 
themselves to, and Venice would be the ideal place for realizing the unlikely 
possibility of making the voyage. But quite apart from the papal clause in 
their vow, Rome — the Church, the pope— exercises on them an increasing 
and mysterious fascination. It is an element of the Ignatian vision that will 
grow powerfully in the period now opening up for them. In fact, Ignatius 
will very soon draft certain rules for thinking with the Church that will be 
inserted into the Exercises. He may not realize it, but he is about to meet his 
destiny. The intuition of Manresa will reach its full expansion and its 

37 He heads southward toward Rome along the Via Cassia with Favre and 
Lainez, being "very especially visited by the Lord" (PilgTest [96]), as he 

himself remarks. With the fervor of his recent priesthood and the intense 
preparation for celebrating his first Mass— he who would find his sublimest 
illuminations occurring at the very time and place of his Masses— it is a 
period of "many spiritual visions and many, almost frequent consolations. 
The opposite of when he was in Paris" (PilgTest [95]). There is the triple 
division of time that all the sources mention. With the central period of the 

49 Letter to John de Verdolay, Venice, July 24, 1537, in Sancti Ignatii de Loyola 
EpistoLe et instructions, vol. 12, in Monumenta Ignatiana, vol. 42 of MHSI (Rome, 1966), 321. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism •b 19 

"time of distraction" ' behind him, Manresa comes alive again in him with 
new force: "When he was preparing to say [his first] Mass, during all those 
trips he had great supernatural visitations of the sort he used to have at 
Manresa." The testimony, which is Ignatius's own (PilgTest [95]), could not 
be more explicit. 

38 He had decided to spend a year "preparing himself and asking the Virgin 
to be good enough to place him with her Son" (PilgTest [96]). He put it 

precisely that way, as if being prepared and being placed with her Son were 
synonyms. In fact, they are synonyms for Ignatius. His search for acceptance 
and confirmation become intense now that he is conscious of being the 
nucleus of a group that is groping for the definitive start on its spiritual 
path, and he sees himself about to complete his priesthood by going up to 
the altar. Ignatius, so favored with special gifts during those days, begs for 
that favor of being "placed with the Son," which will be for him a final 
element in his discernment, an assurance that since the generic call at the 
Cardoner he has been following the straight road, and a guiding light for the 
tasks that lie before him. If the Cardoner meant both a point of arrival and 
a starting point, the same and even more can be said of what is about to 
happen at La Storta. 

39 At La Storta, seventeen kilometers from Rome, a small chapel stands at 
the intersection of the ancient Roman road along which they were 

coming and a lateral road. Ignatius, with Lainez and Favre, entered the 
village "and making a prayer, felt such a change coming over his soul and 
saw so clearly that God the Father was placing him with Christ his Son that 
he could not doubt that God the Father was indeed placing him with his 
Son" (PilgTest [96]). This is the sum total of what we know about the event 
that Ignatius will recount eighteen years later. 

40 But Lainez, who was present and no doubt received immediate and 
detailed confidences, has spelled out for us the content of that illumina- 
tion, which could not have had more far-reaching consequences. And 
Ignatius has stated that "all that Lainez said was true" (PilgTest [96]). What 
Lainez said and later wrote was this: Ignatius was singularly favored by 
spiritual feelings all during the trip from Vicenza to La Storta, especially 
when he would receive Communion from the hand of Favre or Lainez 
himself. He had the sensation at La Storta that the Father was impressing 
these words on his heart: "I will be propitious to you in Rome." On the 
occasion we are referring to, Ignatius felt he could "see Christ with his cross 
on his shoulder, and together with him the Father, who was telling him, 'I 
want you to serve us.' For this reason, Ignatius, taking great devotion from 

20 4* Pedro Arrupe, S J. 


that most holy name, wanted the congregation to be called the Society of 


41 The profound meaning of this enlightenment is very clear: the divine 
Persons accept him into their service. It is the divine confirmation that 

Ignatius wanted at that crucial moment of his life. The generic call of the 
Cardoner is now explicitly and formally restated. Just as had happened at 
the time of "that so great illumination," the habitual low-key Ignatian prose 
style bursts into flame: "He felt such a change coming over his soul and saw 
so vividly." So vividly, we today would add, that seven years later, writing 
in his Spiritual Journal on February 23, 1544, the peak moment of the 
Trinitarian acceptance and confirmation of his election of absolute poverty 
for the houses of the Society, he feels compelled to recall how like this is to 
the confirmation of his acceptance at La Storta: "With these thoughts 
growing in intensity and seeming to be a confirmation, even though I 
received no consolations about this matter, and Jesus' showing himself, or 
letting himself be felt, seeming to me to be somehow the work of the Most 
Holy Trinity, and remembering when the Father placed me with his Son" 
(Spjr February 23, 1544). A passage, let us remark in passing, that he out- 
lined with a box, like all the more important passages of his Journal. 

42 The Person who dominates the scene is the Father, not the Son. It is the 
Father who accepts Ignatius and gives him to the Son, just as it is the 

Father who promises to be propitious to them in Rome. Ignatius, creator of 
this apostolic group and bearer of the virtual charism of the Society whose 
existence is assured at that very moment, is received as the servant of Jesus, 

and of the Father in Jesus. He has attained 
— — — ^^^^^— — ^^^^— the grace that is asked for in the colloquy 

r -**r i y**7 */ / *7 of the Two Standards: "to be received un- 

Little by little, though, the , , . , ,„ . , 

• . , der his standard into complete poverty 

road was opening up be- , , .,. . , . , . , . r , 

j. . r or anc i humility, which is the meaning or the 

J ' Son's appearing to him, not in his infancy 

or preaching or resurrection, but carrying 

his cross. There is also the same Ignatian 

line of intercessors: through Mary to her Son, through the Son to the 

Father. The Christology underlying these illuminations fits into the purest 

Pauline and Johannine tradition of leading everything back to the Father 

(see Eph. 3:18; Heb. 7:25; John 14:6, and similar passages). 

43 With such enlightenments from the divine Persons, Ignatius is as if led 
by the hand toward what the Society will be. No one has synthesized 

better than Nadal the meaning of that prefoundational period: Ignatius, he 


Diego Lainez, S.J., "Adhortationes in librum examinis," no. [7], in FN 2:133. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism •!• 21 

writes, "spiritum sequebatur, non praeibat. Itaque deducebatur quo nesciebat 
suaviter, nee enim de Ordinis institutione tunc cogitabat; et tamen, pedeten- 
tim ad ilium et viam muniebat et iter faciebat, quasi sapienter imprudens, in 
simplicitate cordis sui in Christo." The complete promise of the future 
Society is given in those lines. "Ignatius was following the spirit, he was not 
running ahead of it. And yet he was being led gently, whither he did not 
know. He was not intending at that time to found the Order. Little by 
little, though, the road was opening up before him and he was moving along 
it, wisely ignorant, with his heart placed very simply in Christ." 51 

44 The destiny of the Society was determined at La Storta. It might have 
been compatible even with the trip to Jerusalem, although that would 

have implied a whole series of futuribles about which we can only guess. But 
the confirmation at La Storta pointed to Rome as the privileged point of 
reference for the Society, and the papal clause in the vow at Montmartre, 
which was only a possible alternative, was to determine its destiny. Only six 
months remained of the year they were to wait, after which the vow of 
going to Jerusalem would yield to the alternate obligation of "presenting 
themselves to the Vicar of Christ, so that he might use them wherever he 
judged would be for the greater glory of God and the good of souls" (Pilg- 
Test [85]). All that terminology— "he might use them," "the Vicar of Christ," 
"the greater glory of God," "the good of souls"— is already typically Jesuit. 
The special bond to the Vicar of Christ is becoming clearer and clearer. If 
even at the Cardoner his "feelings about the divine mysteries" were extended 
to include those of the Church, 52 after Montmartre and now at La Storta 
before the gates of Rome, he sees that service of the Church involves 
availability to the Vicar of Christ. 

45 There are two fundamental points made very clearly in the contempo- 
rary accounts we have of what happened at La Storta. 

1. The group overtone in the Son's acceptance of Ignatius is the first. 
Even during Ignatius's life, in 1554, Nadal pointed this out in his conference 
at Salamanca: When Christ appeared to Ignatius with the cross, the Father 
told him: I will be propitious to you in Rome, "quo manifeste significabat 
Deum nos in socios Iesu elegisse" [thereby clearly indicating that God had 
chosen us as companions of Jesus'] (PilgTest [85]). Nadal added in his own 
handwriting those three words (which the copyist had omitted) that we have 
emphasized, because he wanted to be very explicit. The founder's most 

51 Nadal, "Dialogi," no. [17], in FN 2:251-53. 
"Nadal, "Exhort. Salmant.," no. [5], FN 1:306 f. 

22 •!• Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 

trustworthy contemporaries were unshakably sure that the Society was born 
at La Storta. 53 

46 2. The name "J esus " is the second fundamental point. The companions 
had agreed on that name at Vicenza, before setting out by different roads 
toward Rome. The proposal had come from Ignatius's "personal initiative, 
asking his companions very insistently, before having constitutions or 
anything else, that our Society be called the Society of Jesus. And they all 
liked the idea" (ibid., no. [25]). His initiative was fully confirmed at La 
Storta. Immediately after his account of how Ignatius was accepted there by 
the Son, Nadal .continues: "From that origin, Christ Jesus, it follows that 
our Society is called the Society of Jesus." 54 This name was so important for 
Ignatius that, as he put it, "only God can change it." 55 Polanco, obviously, 
mentions how adamant Ignatius was: 

In this matter of the name he had so many visitations . . . that I heard him 
say he would feel he was acting against God and offending him, were he to 
doubt that this was the proper name . . . and that even if all those in the 
Society thought it should be changed, he alone would never agree to that. 
And since it is in our Constitutions that no decision is to be taken if even 
one disagrees, that name would therefore never be changed in his lifetime. 
Our father Master Ignatius always has this unshakable certainty in things 
that he has learned by some higher-than-human way, and hence will not 
brook arguments to the contrary. 56 

The acceptance of Ignatius's oblation and the shaping of the Society's 
being are only two facets of the same thing. One cannot be imagined 
without the other. The presence of the divine Persons presides over both. 
We may say, in a word, that at La Storta the following points were estab- 

► Ignatius's spiritual and psychological solidity. He is accepted and his 
intuition of the Cardoner reaches its full maturity: all that remains 
is to carry it out; 

► The institutionalization of the group of companions is accepted as 
part of the plan; 

► The name "Society of Jesus"; 

► Service in humility and with the cross; 

53 See Jeronimo Nadal, S.J., Adbortatio in Collegio Romano, no. [24], in FN 2:10. 

54 Ibid. See also Jeronimo Nadal, S.J., "In examen annotationes," in MN 4:650. 

55 Nadal, "Exhort. Salmant.," no. [17], in FN 1:314. 

56 Polanco, "Suramar," no. 86, in FN 1:203 f. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism <• 23 

► The ecclesial link in the person of the Vicar of Christ as the giver of 

48 The dizzying speed that events now assume shows how far the project 
has matured and how powerful an effect La Storta has had on the 

companions. A year later, in November 1538, they carry out the vow of 
Montmartre (it is a vow, not of obedience, but of availability) and offer 
themselves to the Pope. The imminence of an inevitable dispersion raises the 
supreme question: how to make the personal link that each one has with the 
Roman Pontiff compatible with the link of affectivity and shared ideals that 
they have with one another. 57 The unanimous answer is to "form a body," 
to institutionalize their Society of Jesus. There follow the Deliberations and 
Determinations. It is not at all strange that the first decision taken is "Who- 
ever wants to enter the Society will have to make an explicit vow of obedi- 
ence to the Supreme Pontiff." 58 Obedience to the pope is the doorway for 
entering the Society. 

49 If I have dwelt on this analysis and have referred so often to the sources, 
it is because I feel it necessary to complete and illuminate the very 

discreet information that Ignatius gives us — usually doing no more than 
stating the fact without going into its contents— with the absolutely trust- 
worthy details supplied by his immediate collaborators. God has blessed the 
Society of Jesus with an unequaled documentation concerning its origins, all 
of which has now been published. From a study of these sources, we get the 
profound conviction that Ignatius's call at the Cardoner and the confirma- 
tion at La Storta took place amid the most sublime communications from 
the divine Persons to our founder. 

50 Ignatius was apparently unable to settle for anything less. Such, in any 
event, is his tendency to 

carry things to the very ulti- ^ ^— — — — 

mate. The former gentleman ^ , , T7 j i n • . r T 

, . , Gad has blessed the Society of Jesus 

at court and captain on the . , . , . . . 

battlefield always spurned me- wlth an equaled documentation 

diocrity and compromises: he concerning its origins. 

aspired for the noblest lady, ■ 

he wanted to outstrip the 

saints, later he would refuse to leave a court trial without getting a verdict. 

"Our father Ignatius had a great character, a great soul; and with the further 

See MonCons 1:3, no. [1]. 


'Determinationes Societatis," no. [1], in MonCons 1:10. 

24 4* Pedro Arrupe, S.J. 

help of our Lord's grace, he always strove to undertake great things." 59 He 
will be the one who pursues the magis, the greater glory of God. Kneeling 
before the Trinity, that fontal mystery of the divine Essence, Ignatius 
follows his wildest ambitions and accepts his own "measure"— the mystery of 
how his puniness and unworthiness are called to collaborate in the divine 
action. It is the sentiment he had in the days of the Cardoner: "to consider 
God's attributes, contrasting them with his contraries in me — his wisdom 
and my ignorance, his goodness and my wickedness" (SpEx 9). Now, admit- 
ted to the intimacy of the Trinity and with his vocation of service con- 
firmed, he considers anew and purifies the limitations of his cooperation: 
"Thus, my limited power comes from the supreme and infinite power 
above" (SpEx 237), or as the Journal puts it, "measuring my 'measure' against 
the divine wisdom and greatness" (February 18, 1544). 

IV. The Trinitarian Peak: The Spiritual Journal 
(February 1544-February 1545) 

51 What we have said about the Trinitarian source of Ignatius's vocation at 
the Cardoner and his acceptance and confirmation at La Storta impinges 

on the Ignatian charism at its loftiest level as an exemplary image in which 
only the key elements, still without their ulterior determinations and 
complements, are present. Such essential elements are the divine service by 
following Christ in poverty and the cross, out of love, without conditions or 
restrictions, as companions of Jesus, in close association with the Vicar of 

52 A year after La Storta, in November 1538, the companions offer them- 
selves to the Pope and take the final steps of the foundation process. In a 

letter from those days, Ignatius himself tells us what is running through his 
mind: they do not venture to accept new companions lest they be accused of 
making themselves an institution before the papal approbation. But their 
unity grows: "And so now, even if we are not one in our way of proceed- 
ing, we are all one in spirit, so as to plan our future together." 60 There is no 
unanimity yet, but they continue working at the Deliberations and Determi- 
nations through the spring of 1539; that summer the draft of the first 
Formula is prepared, which the Pope approves orally on September 3. The 
pontifical document comes only a year later, in 1540: it is the first organic 

59 Nadal, "Exhort. Complut. 3," no. 60, in Commentlnst 296. See also his 
Apologia contra censuram, no. [30], in FN 2:62 f. 

60 Letter to Isabel Roser, December 19, 1538, in FN 1:13. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Cbarism *fr 25 

statement of the Society's charism. The following April, Ignatius is elected 
general and the professions are made. Ignatius begins to work on the Consti- 
tutions and finishes the first draft in 1545. The Journal, which we will look 
into now, covers precisely those final days: February 1544 to February 1545. 

53 The Spiritual Journal shows how much the process of converting the 
original intuitions of the Cardoner and La Storta into institutional 

principles— which are nothing but the Constitutions— also proceeds in a 
Trinitarian light. Without this exceptional document, we could never guess 
what lies behind that modest phrase in Ignatius's autobiography: "All his life 
long he had this sense of feeling a great devotion when praying to the Most 
Holy Trinity" (PilgTest [28]). Certainly, Goncalves da Camara ends the 
manuscript of the autobiography with his own observations and not with 
any words of Ignatius: "The practice the Father observed when writing the 
Constitutions was to say Mass each day and to represent to God the point he 
was dealing with and to pray over that" ([PilgTest [101]). 

When he was writing the Constitutions too he frequently had [visions]. . . . 
And thus he showed rue a very fat bundle of writings, of which he read me 
a part. Most of it was visions that he had seen in confirmation of some 
point of the Constitutions, some times seeing God the Father, at other times 
the three Persons of the Trinity, at other times the Virgin who was inter- 
ceding, at other times when she was confirrning. (ibid., [100]) 

Who could have guessed on the evidence of such generic words that Ignatius 
had been "led by God by the ways of an infused contemplation, at the same 
level, if not in the same way, as a St. Francis of Assisi or a St. John of the 
Cross"? 61 Who could have suspected that this is the context by which 
Ignatius, at least at this concrete point that we are referring to, makes his 
election, analyzes the motions that justify it, offers it, and gives thanks for it? 

54 What we still possess of the Journal (twenty-five sheets, the first note- 
book of fourteen sheets corresponding to the forty days when he was 

deliberating over poverty) is no doubt a minimal part of that "very fat 
bundle of writings, of which he read me a pan" that he showed to da 
Camara. "Most of it was visions he had seen in confirmation of some point 
of the Constitutions. ... I wanted to see all those papers about the Constitu- 
tions and I asked him to let me have them for a little while; but he did not 
want to" (PilgTest [100 f.]). Those are the closing lines of da Camara's 
epilogue to the autobiography. Not even for a little while. Several factors 
made him keep to himself the lights under which he had been acting: a 
feeling of modesty and humility, of loyalty to the Lord who had admitted 
him to his confidences, and possibly, too, a chivalrous solicitude for the 


De Guibert, Jesuits, 27. 

26 * Pedro Arrupe, S.J. 

freedom of those who would have to read and approve his work without the 
inspired helps for decision that he had enjoyed. 

55 The Journal is notes written exclusively for himself with the spontaneity 
and absolute lack of inhibition, even a literary one, of someone who is 

sure they will not be violated by others' eyes. In it, we see the interior of 
Ignatius's soul unveiled: his Trinitarian and Eucharistic spirituality, the lofty 
levels of infused understanding and love at which he moved, his fidelity to 
the Exercises' method of election and of discernment of spirits, the total 
consistency between his ascetical spirituality and his mysticism, the connec- 
tion between the Trinitarian model and certain elements of his charism, and 
also the reflection of not a few traits of his human psychology and personality. 

56 Someone who reads the Journal for the first time cannot help but notice 
two things about it. The first is the rigor of self-analysis to which 

Ignatius subjects himself, in keeping with a basic trait of his character. That 
"stopping to think, reasoning within himself," which he mentions as charac- 
teristic about himself as early as in his readings as a convalescent (PilgTest 
[7]), and which reappears no less than thirteen times in the Exercises in a 
grammatically incorrect but extremely expressive phrase: "reflecting in 
myself" (SpEx 106-8, 114, 116), reaches in the Journal the perfection of a 
masterwork of introspection. The second observation is Ignatius's care for 
exactitude in noting down the kind, duration, amount, and intensity of the 
grace received. That desire for precision explains the pentimenti that change 
the text over and over again: "the crossing out of words, which tells us 
something, which shows us in the words added in the margin of the page, in 
words begun and not finished, the varying moments of composition and the 
reactions that various motions kept producing in his spirit." 62 Ignatius 
outlines the more important passages in a box and adds mysterious marginal 
references. And as if that were not enough, he copies on three separate 
sheets (one of which is still extant in Madrid) those special paragraphs, all 
referring to the Trinity or to Jesus Christ as Mediator with the Trinity. 

57 We all know about that particular problem in the Constitutions over 
which he made an election during the forty most important days of his 

Journal. And that, in my view, explains why those pages have been saved 
from the destruction that befell the other pages of that "very fat bundle of 
writings." It was not a problem of minor importance, as has been hypothe- 
sized at times when guessing at the magnitude and intensity of yet other 
graces that he might have received when presenting even more important 
points to the Trinity. For Ignatius, few matters were more important or 

62 Ignacio Iparraguirre, S.J., "Introduction to the Spiritual Journal," in Obras 
completas de S. Ignacio de Loyola, 3rd ed. (Madrid: 1977), 338. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Cbarism •h 27 

more deserving of so decisive an approval before making the decision which 
his heart was urging upon him. Three years before, in the Deliberations of 
1541 (the so-called Constitutions of 1541), the six companions who had stayed 
in Rome with full powers had decided that the poverty of the professed 
houses should be absolute, without any possibility of having income. But 
they had permitted income for the upkeep of the churches annexed to such 
houses: "The sacristy may have income for all matters of necessity that will 
not be for the professed." 63 This seemed to Ignatius, at the moment of 
drafting the Constitutions, to fall short of the absolute poverty of Christ 
whom he wanted to follow, and to renege on his "offerings of greater value 
and of more importance ... to imitate you in bearing ... all poverty, both 
actual and spiritual" (SpEx 98). 

58 Ignatius is torn between his loyalty to the poor Christ, whom he wants 
to follow in the line of the magis, and his respect for the decision of his 

companions. How can he forbid the churches to have an income, thereby 
imposing on the Society a poverty more total than that of the strictest, most 
rigorous contemplative orders? (Even St. Teresa of Avila would to a certain 
degree permit such income for her reformed convents.) Ignatius felt that one 
of the fundamental pillars on which rest the Society's apostolic freedom and 
its perfection in following Christ was at stake here. There might be more 
important problems; but since they were less disputed, they did not need 
confirmation from on high as much as this one. This was the crucial prob- 
lem. For that reason, and not only because they were the report of graces 
received (which were no doubt many all through the other pages of that 
"very fat bundle of writings"), Ignatius spared those pages from the destruc- 
tion that was the fate of the rest: because should the case ever arise (for he 
never dreamed of refusing the dialog to which his companions had a right 
before they would approve the Constitutions he was drafting), he could 
appeal to the seriousness of his procedure and the divine confirmation that 
had brought him to such a stand. 

59 What interests us directly, here and now, is not a general study of 
Ignatius's mystical life, which we find most clearly documented in the 

Journal, but the fact of the Trinitarian confirmation given to Ignatius on a 
concrete point that he judges essential in his charism and wants to convert 
into one of the Society's constitutional "ways of proceeding." We can hardly 
appreciate that Trinitarian confirmation, though, without looking, at least in 
a panoramic overview, at the inner spiritual world of Ignatius. One compe- 

Constitutiones anni 1541, in MonCons 1:35. 

28 •!• Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 


tent writer's resume of the ascensional rhythm of the Journal, among many 
that have been proposed, could be the following. 64 

V ► From the divine Persons, contemplated separately, to the unity of their 
circumincession [sometimes spelled "circuminsession] (February 2-21). 

► From the man Jesus, who has become the center of Ignatius's 
experiences and inner life, to the God Jesus (February 21-28). 

From the second Person to the unifying plenitude of the divine 
Essence in itself. It is his tentative discovery of the transcendent 
unity (February 29-March 6). 

► Gratitude in a loving respect and reverence. 

60 Here is a sampling of quotations from Ignatius that inform us in a 
particular way about the Trinitarian communications connected with his 
decision for total poverty: 

► "The intelligences had to do with the operations and productions of 
y/~ the divine Persons, feeling or seeing more than understanding" 

(February 21). 

*y The content of this illumination is the procession of the Holy 
y/ Spirit, under the formal aspect of the operation of the Father and 
Son (February 19, 1544). 

► That same February 21: 

Feeling spiritual intelligences, so much so that I seemed to understand that 
there was practically nothing more to know in this matter of the Most 
Holy Trinity. ... I knew or felt, Dominus scit, that in speaking to the 
Father, in seeing that he was a Person of the Most Blessed Trinity, I was 
moved to love the entire Trinity, especially since the other Persons were in 
him essentially. I had the same experience in the prayer to the Son. The 
same too in that to the Holy Spirit, rejoicing in one after the other as I felt 
consolations, attributing this to — and rejoicing that it came from — all three 
(February 21, 1544). 

Ignatius is again speaking about circumincession here. The adverb "essen- 
tially" indicates that by the unity of their Essence, in each of the three 
Divine Persons the other two are present. This illumination is so extraordi- 
nary that Ignatius's account of it, normally as objective as a mere listing of 
facts, evokes from him an "exclamation of admiration with heightened 
affection" (SpEx 60) and an application of "his own measure" in contrast to 
the divine condescension: "In untying this knot or whatever, the fact seemed 
so great to me that I never stopped saying, speaking to myself: Who are 


Iparraguirre, Obras completas, 331 n. 24. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism 4* 29 

you? How can this be? etc. How did you deserve this? or, Whence did it 
come? and so on." 

► Two days later: "With these thoughts growing in intensity and 
seeming to be a confirmation, even though I received no consola- 
tions about this matter and Jesus' showing himself— or letting 
himself be felt— seeming to me to be somehow the work of the 
Most Holy Trinity, and remembering when the Father placed me 
with his Son" (February 23, 1544). Ignatius here remembers Jesus 
laden with his cross, to whom the Father gave him as a servant: 
"Later, the time that day when I recalled or remembered Jesus, a 
certain feeling or seeing with the understanding in constant devo- 
tion and confirmation." 

► "A feeling, or more properly a seeing, apart from the natural forces, 
the Most Holy Trinity and Jesus, who was presenting me or placing 
me or being my intermediary with the Most Holy Trinity so that 
that intellectual vision would be communicated to me. With this 
feeling and seeing, I was deluged with tears and love, but directed to 
Jesus; and a deferential respect for the Most Holy Trinity, more like 
a reverential love than anything else" (February 27, 1544). 

61 All this situates Ignatius's deliberation at truly sublime heights. But what 
is, concretely, the reason that moves him to consider imposing so 
singular a poverty on the Society? He will explain this to us in the first part 
of his deliberation when, following the method that he himself gave in the 
Exercises, he turns 

to reflect and get into elections, and that done, having picked up the 
reasons I had written out [the autograph manuscript of the Deliberation on 
Poverty, which we still have] 65 to reflect on them, praying to our Lady, then 
to the Son and to the Father that he would give me his Spirit to reflect and 
discern [third and second time of the Spiritual Exercises], although I was 
talking of something already done, feeling deep devotion and certain lights 
with some clearness of vision, I sat down, considering, as it were in general, 
whether I should have complete or partial income, or none at all, 66 and I 
lost all desire to see any reasons. Other thoughts came to me at that point: 
for example, how the Son first sent out the apostles in poverty to preach, 
and afterward the Holy Spirit confirmed them, giving his spirit and 

65 MonCons 1:78. 

Meaning that both houses and churches should have income (i.e., complete 
income), that only churches should have it (i.e., partial income), or that neither houses nor 
churches should have it (i.e., no income). 

30 4* Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 

tongues; and thus the Father and Son sending the Holy Spirit, all three 
Persons confirmed that mission. (Spjr February 11, 1544) 

62 This is the key. In those illuminations, Ignatius sees that the Most Holy 
Trinity has confirmed an apostolic poverty that is absolute and does not 

believe that the Society can vary from that model. The rest of the Journal is 
a search for an identical confirmation of a similar poverty for the Society. 
When he has finished that process with the complete divine confirmation, 

Ignatius, by an act of the will into which 
he puts his whole personality, indents as if 

'With this feeling and for * who \ e new P a ™S ra P h * nd writes « 

r r r j - a t single word, as only he can do, erammati- 

seeing, I was deluded with „ . j • i t ■ ■ 

° r T „ ° cally imperfect and redolent or genius, but 

tears and love. . a. «t: -j » 

worth more than a painting: rinido. 

When he starts a new page, although he 
had written no more than ten lines on the 
preceding page, he begins with a marginal note: "I took these four days off, 
looking at nothing of the Constitutions" (March 12, 1544). It is his well- 
deserved rest after a task carefully done. Those pages of the Journal deserved 
indeed to be saved! 

63 The outcome of the episode is well known. In the revised version of the 
Formula presented to Julius III in 1550, the following words will be 

added to the prior version approved by Paul III: "professi, vel ulla eorum 
domus aut ecclesia." Those two words, "aut ecclesia," are the scant remnant 
in the Constitutions of that long drawn out spiritual effort. 67 

V. The Ignatian Charism Seen in the Trinitarian Light 

64 When we finish reading the twenty-five pages of the Journal, pondering 
on them in the blinding Trinitarian light that radiates from them, and 
wondering what that "very fat bundle" of which most was "visions he had 
seen in confirmation of some point of the Constitutions" must have been, we 
have to be puzzled by this simple fact: Ignatius does not mention the Most 
Holy Trinity a single time in the Constitutions^. This bare fact shows us how 
great was his discretion, his humility, and his judiciousness. And yet, now 
that we have his secret, we must illuminate the various elements of the 

67 Formula Inst. Julii III, no. 7, conveniently found in The Constitutions of the 
Society of Jesus and Their Complementary Norms (St. Louis: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 
1996), 10. This latter source will be cited as ConsNorms. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism •%• 31 

Ignatian charism with this Trinitarian light if we want to grasp its ultimate 
point of reference. 

65 We know, by Ignatius's own testimony, that we have to understand 
certain concrete decisions about our common life — the absence of choir 
and habit ("the habit is of no importance") and the use of pilgrimages as 
"trials" are examples of this— in the light of "something that happened to me 
at Manresa." 68 Nadal explains this more fully, referring to his confidences 
with the founder: "When asked why he had done this or that, he was wont 
to answer: 'I refer it all back 
to Manresa.'" 69 Even in his ^^~~~ — ^~^~ 

way of proceeding in govern- j do fcrffcw ^ u fa extreme l y im . 

ment as general, what he saw . . . . j t *.l t - '+^ - 

_ , & . ' . . 70 portant to underline the Trinitarian 

at Manresa is his criterion. r • r j i • r 

XT j , r source of certain fundamental traits of 

Nadal goes as rar as to con- J , . . . J 

i j T * t c. t the Ignatian charism. 

elude that at La Storta Igna- d 

tius had a "praeclarissimam ^ „ .^^^^ 
futuri Instituti intelligentiam" 

[an exceedingly clear understanding of the future Institute], 71 the "praenotio 
Instituti" that I mentioned above. I have no desire to give a maximalist 
interpretation to these generic statements of Nadal, about which there is an 
abundant bibliography. I do believe, though, that it is extremely important 
to underline the Trinitarian source of certain fundamental traits of the 
Ignatian charism, as we can conclude from the experiences at the Cardoner 
and La Storta and from his Spiritual Journal. 

66 Service and mission. Immersion in the Trinitarian light, with its gifts of 
infused understanding and love, does not bring Ignatius to the mysticism 
of marriage or of a transforming union to which other contemplatives 
arrived. His conversion and transformation at the Cardoner might have led 
him to an eremitical, penitential, and contemplative spirituality. The fact 
that they do not must be attributed, at least in part, to his natural predispo- 
sition for arduous tasks and to his courtly and military formation; but above 
all, to the divine plan and to the message conveyed by the illuminations 
with which he is favored. 

68 Da Camara, Memoriale, no. 137, in FN 1:609 f. 

69 Nadal, "Exhort. Colon.," no. [8], in FN 2:406. See also "Exhort. Conimbr. 3,' 
no. [11], in FN 2:152; and "Exhort. Complut. 2," no. [10], in FN 2:193. 

70 Nadal, Adhort. in Coll. Romano, no. [12], in FN 2:6. 

71 Nadal, "Dialogi," no. [24], in FN 2:259 f. 

32 •!• Pedro Arrupe, S J. 

67 The enlightenment at the Cardoner is a virtual summons. Ignatius will 
pass from contemplation of the Trinity to contemplation of the works 

of the Trinity, in order finally to aspire to be admitted to collaboration with 
that action of the Trinity. It is a mysticism that leads him to action. Because 
what is revealed to him, with contours that are imprecise but will be 
progressively enriched and sharpened from the Cardoner (1522) to La Storta 
(1537), to the period of the Spiritual Journal (1544) and up to his death 
(1556), is an 

understanding, in the bosom of the Trinity, of the mystery announced by 
Paul, of how all things issue from God and return to him. Ignatius sees that 
the mysteries of creation, of man's fall, of redemption, and of the Church 
are caught up in that movement of descent and ascent. Above all, the 
mystery of Christ is revealed to him in that perspective. What he sees in 
Christ is not the model of this or that virtue, however perfect, such as 
humility, poverty, patience, zeal, etc. For Ignatius, Christ is above all the 
One who, being always conscious of issuing from the Father and of return- 
ing to him, continuously contemplates the Father's designs in order to 
discern, so to speak, in a perfect indifference of heart and openness of spirit, 
without preconceived limits, what the Father wants from him for the 
realization of his work and his greater glory. 72 

It is not a Platonic contemplation, but one that commands a reply from 
Ignatius's heart. The work of Christ has to be furthered, and furthered with 
the same modalities with which Christ did it: as an unconditional, universal 
mission, and with a kenosis— which means poverty, humility, and the cross— 
and in constant union with the Father. 

68 Ignatius feels interiorly compelled to make that his life's destiny. By a 
discernment and an election of a state of life, by the meditation on the 

Kingdom and the Two Standards, all on the basis of "that so great illumina- 
tion," he replies to the call. He will be a man of the greater divine service. 
At the Cardoner, the group aspect of that service is still absent, and even the 
priestly aspect. But are we not perhaps talking already of things that are the 

69 We have seen the advance that La Storta marked in that service: its 
Trinitarian acceptance, its group overtones, the cross, its focus on Rome, 

the name. Ours is not an effort here to write a monograph on service (and 
its equivalent, glory) in the Ignatian charism, but to highlight its Trinitarian 
inspiration. The Spiritual Journal brings out how Ignatius conceives every- 
thing as issuing from and going back to the Trinity, as an external reflection 

72 R. Cantin, "L'lllumination du Cardoner," in Sciences ecclesiastiques (Montreal, 
1955), 54. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Char ism ♦ 33 

of circumincession. He feels called to associate himself with that work, to 

70 Ignatius looks to find the initial and final point of his discernment in the 
Trinity, with an attitude of respect and reverence like that of a servant 

before his king, aware that he has a mission to carry out. All discernment is 
a function of service, because the unlimitedness of the task and the unlimit- 
edness, too, of the means for carrying it out impose a criterion of reduction 
and application. Ignatius comes to the Trinity after making his offering, "not 
at all for a further confirmation, but so that before the Most Holy Trinity a 
decision may be made regarding me concerning his greater service, etc., by 
the most expedient way" (Spjr February 27, 1544). "The most expedient 
way": that means complete availability. Like the branches of a trunk, all the 
characteristics of Ignatius's apostolic service are derived from this "greater 
service" that must be given "by the most expedient way": "Our goal does 
not stop at the intention, since we must always look to the greater glory of 
God, always go further in charity; the extension is as great as charity goes; 
the means are as many as can be used by the humility of a simple priest." 7 
There is no ministry that falls outside the Society's field of apostolate, no 
man who can not make a claim on it, no honest means that is excluded, no 
advantage that would exempt one from trying to do ever more and more. 

71 Ignatius had other illuminations: "As the Son first sent out the apostles 
to preach, and then the Holy Spirit confirmed them, giving his spirit 

and tongues, so, the Father and the Son sending the Holy Spirit, all three 
Persons confirm that mission" (Spjr February 11, 1544). This is the entire 
theology of mission that Ignatius makes completely his: Christ gives the 
mission, the Holy Spirit confirms it with his gifts, for the glory of the 
Father. It is the extension ad extra of the "expiration" by which the Father 
and the Son eternally "send" the Holy Spirit. 

72 In an apostolic service conceived on so grandiose a scale in the light of 
the Trinity, we are likely to make little allowance for human limitations. 

Ignatius frames this service in a strong hierarchical context and gives it a 
meaning of combat— "to fight for God," "soldiers of Christ who fight" 74 — but 
the ultimate point of reference is still Trinitarian: 

► In the apostolic obedience that is owed primarily to the Supreme 
Pontiff "in order to be more surely directed by the Holy Spirit." 
Discernment is to be asked for from the Holy Spirit at one's very 
entrance into the Society, for it is the Spirit who calls (ibid., [4]); 

73 Nadal, "Exhort. Complut. 3," no. [74], in Commmentlnst 308. 

74 "Formula Inst. Julii III," nos. 1, 3, 4, in ConsNorms, 1-8. 

34 •!• Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 

► In the discernment of concrete options in both our personal and 
our community life, which has its roots in the Cardoner; 

► In the norms for the selection of ministries that guarantee the 
characteristics of the apostolic mission, as it was seen at the Cardo- 

73 It is an essential trait of the Ignatian charism, and one of clear Trinitar- 
ian origin in the vision of La Storta, that the following of Christ is to be 

done in humiliation and the cross. That is how Ignatius understood it, and 
this aspect is the topic of his conversation with Favre and Lainez immedi- 
ately after they leave the chapel and continue on their way to Rome. 

Persecutions will be necessary to maintain 
the Society's militant temper, and in this 

There is no ministry that sense I S nati " s ™ U , P ra ^ '}* Persecutions 

r 11 * -j +i o - * > mav never be lacking. They are also a 
mils outside the Society s 7 , ^^^^^^ ^, • • , 

r - i i r i proor oi hdelity to Christ, a sign that Jesu- 

field of apostolate, h$ ^ nM of ^ world „ ^ 15:lg _ 

, 16:14). The life of Ignatius, dotted with 

lawsuits and sentences— sometimes insis- 
tently demanded by Ignatius, since putting an end to accusations made him 
freer for greater service — taught him experientially that the following of 
Christ brings much hostility. With his habitual flair for reflection, he had 
seen that persecutions are lacking only when we do not work at our aposto- 
late. 75 

74 But the cross that the Lord bore on his shoulders means not only 
external persecutions; it also, and primarily, means following him in 

humility, poverty, self-abnegation. It means stripping oneself of everything, 
including honor and a good name, regarding these as well sacrificed when 
"greater service" is at stake. Nadal explains this very well by linking that 
abnegation and cross with the appellation "least," which is a comparative of 
inferiority: "The foundation of the Society is Jesus Christ with his cross for 
the salvation of souls, as was made clear to our blessed father when God the 
Father placed him with his Son. From this it follows that the Society, since 
Jesus Christ is our Foundation and Captain, whom we must imitate spiritu- 
ally, especially in meekness and humility, is to be called the 'least' Society of 
Jesus." 76 That is what Ignatius always called his Society, particularly in 
matters and missions of greater importance. 77 

Ribadeneira, "Dichos y hechos," no. 93, in /W 2:381. 

76 Jeronimo Nadal, "Exhortatio incerto tempore," no. 2, in Commentlnst 490. 

77 Nadal, "Exhort. Salmant," no. [12], in FN 1:311 f. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Char ism ♦ 35 

75 There is no better synthesis of what the cross taught Ignatius at La 
Storta than this paragraph of Nadal's, which would deserve a long 

exegesis full of Jesuit, biblical, and theological overtones: 

It helps to exercise oneself and to consider and feel that we are following 
Jesus Christ, who still carries his cross in the Church militant, to whom the 
eternal Father has given us as servants, if we follow him with our own 
crosses and want nothing more from the world than what he wanted and 
took, i.e., poverty, opprobrium, toil, pain, even death, exercising the 
mission for which God had sent him into the world, which was to save and 
perfect souls, with all obedience and perfection in all virtues. But our cross 
is our delight too, for it already has the splendor and glory of Jesus' victory 
over death, his resurrection and his ascension. 78 

76 The trait of being contemplatives in action is also Trinitarian in the 
Society's charism. It is astonishing to see that when Ignatius is going 

through the mystical experiences recounted in his Journal, he is simulta- 
neously carrying on his nor- 
mal activities: government of ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^_^^^__^^_ 
the Society, numerous letters, 

visits made and received, and Jt does not seem ri 8 ht t0 me t0 chat " 
other apostolic occupations. actenze Ignatian spirituality by its 
In those very days he is asceticism, as has been done, con- 
founding the House of St. sciously or unconsciously, perhaps 
Martha for reformed prosti- more in the past than today. This 
tutes, negotiating with the does not mean, naturally, that there 
Pope to revoke the limitation is no Ignatian asceticism. 
of the Society to sixty pro- 
fessed Jesuits, founding a ^ ~™ ^ ^^^~^^^~ 
house for catechumens, and so 

on. None of that distracts Ignatius from his Trinitarian intimacy: he receives 

some of his extraordinary graces right in the waiting rooms of cardinals, and 
even in the street. 

77 Contemplation does not exclude action. When Nadal tells how Ignatius's 
spiritual life was centered on the Trinity, especially in his final years, he 
ends thus: "This sort of prayer that our father Ignatius obtained so excep- 
tionally, by a great privilege of God, used to make him also feel the presence 
of God and a relish for spiritual things in all things, in all his actions, in all 
his conversations, being contemplative in action (which he used to explain 
by saying that we must find God in all things)." 79 Ignatius endeavored "to 

Jeronimo Nadal, S.J., "Orationis ratio in Societate," in MN 4:678. 
Nadal, "In examen annotationes," in MN 4:651. 

36 + Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 

teach the Society that its prayer should not be speculative, but practical." 80 
So did Nadal too, when he crisscrossed Europe explaining the Constitutions 
and transmitting to the new communities the Society's authentic way of 
proceeding. He said at Alcala: 

Prayer and solitude, without external means for helping souls, are proper to 
monastic congregations and those of hermits, but not to our Institute. 
Anyone who wants solitude and only prayer, who likes to be off in a 
corner and to flee men and contacts with them to do them good, is not for 
our calling. . . . for anyone like that, there are the Carthusians . . . , whose 
vocation that is. Our vocation demands more of us than just to help 
ourselves, and the grace of our Order helps us in this sense. 81 

A few lines further on, he adds, "Let no one think that in the Society God 
helps him for his own sake." It is precisely the contemplation of the Trini- 
tarian mysteries that turns Ignatius toward apostolic activity. As becomes 
clear in key passages of his Journal (for March 7, 1544), his spiritual circle 
begins by "looking upward" as he seeks in God the light and the primordial 
image; he does not stop there, though, but goes on, "coming down to the 
letter" in order to keep on finding him in earthly realities. To rise from 
creatures to the Creator is a form of prayer certainly not unknown to 
Ignatius. But even more typical of him is the subsequent "descent," from on 
high down to creatures as the term of the divine action. 82 In his first visit to 
Spain, in 1553, Nadal insists that this, in proper measure, is what is proper 
for every Jesuit: "The sentiment of prayer and its affection that inclines 
toward recollection and a not necessary [freely chosen(?)] solitude do not 
seem to be the proper prayer for the Society, but one that inclines toward 
the exercise of its vocation and ministry." 83 

78 But not only should prayer energize apostolic activity; conversely, 
apostolic activity should nourish and foster prayer. This is Nadal's classic 
theory of the circle of action-contemplation: 

This is the circle that there is, as I so often say, in the Society's ministries: 
what you did for your neighbors and how you served God in those minis- 
tries help you further back at home, in your prayer and in the occupations 
you have there; and that greater help enables you later to busy yourself 

80 Nadal, "Exhort. Complut. 2," nos. [8 f.], in FN 2:190-92. 

81 Nadal, "Exhort. Complut. 3," no. [83], in Commentlnst 324. 

82 See Hugo Rahner, S.J., quoted by Iparraguirre in Obras completas, 376 n. 226. 
(See n. 64 above). 

83 Nadal, "Orationis ratio in Soc," in MN 4:673. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism •!• 37 

more earnestly and more fruitfully for your neighbor. So that the one 
exercise sometimes helps the other, and conversely. 84 

79 I would like to add an observation here that I consider necessary. It does 
not seem right to me to characterize Ignatian spirituality by its asceti- 
cism, as has been done, consciously or unconsciously, perhaps more in the 
past than today. Ignatian spirituality is a complex of motive forces that lead 
simultaneously to God and to men. It is participation in the mission of the 
One sent by the Father, in the Spirit, in an ever greater service, in love, 
with all the variants of the cross, in an imitation and following of that Jesus, 
who wants to lead all men and all of creation back to the glory of the 

80 This does not mean, naturally, that there is no Ignatian asceticism. On 
the contrary, so sublime is this vocation that whoever feels this call 

should dispose himself for it by destroying in himself, by the abnegation and 
purification of every disorder, whatever hinders him from living it to the 
extent of the grace given him. Ignatius's Pilgrim's Testament gives us an 
example of that purification. The Spiritual Exercises shows us the method for 
doing the same in ourselves and for helping others in that direction too. An 
Ignatian Trinitarian mysticism and an Ignatian asceticism always go together 
in perfect harmony. Ignatius's Journal gives us an ideal example of the 
election process as proposed in the Exercises for seeking God's will, with the 
same spiritual devotion and tears, the same sentiment of respect and rever- 
ence, the same use of the mediators that we read of in the pages of the 

VI. The Continuing Search 

81 So far, I have dealt with elements of the Ignatian charism whose Trini- 
tarian inspiration is demonstrable. But is that enough for us? We know 
that Ignatius was favored with the grace of an infused contemplation of the 
profoundest mysteries of the Trinity: the mystery of the unity of Essence 
and the Trinity of Persons, the mystery of circumincession; the mystery of 
the generation of the Word and the procession of the Holy Spirit, the 
mystery of the divine operations ad extra. These are only a few of the 
explicit assertions about the Trinity that Ignatius makes in his Journal or 
that are readily deducible from what he writes there. But he was not writing 
theology or mysticism in those spiritual notes, nor did he dwell on the 
content of his visions any more than was necessary to describe them with 

84 Nadal, "Exhort. Complut. 3," no. [35*], in Commentlnst 328 f. 

38 * Pedro Arrupe, S J. 

the greatest possible precision and to spell out the rhythm of the motion of 
spirits he felt in connection with the election or oblation that he was 

82 Now that the Trinitarian origin of the Ignatian charism is clear to us, I 
feel that we may and should raise our eyes to the Trinity and, basing 

ourselves on the data of revelation elaborated by theology, try to see other 
aspects that he saw, but of which he has told us nothing: "The particulars 
that he understood, though many, cannot be determined" (PilgTest [30]). In 
this way, we will be able to clarify and round out other important elements 
in his charism. For we can hardly doubt that the Ignatian charism, or at 
least our understanding and application of it, admits of development. Indeed, 
certain elements in it come out in bolder relief and with greater profundity 
as time goes by: they become more explicit. In consequence, just as Ignatius, 
in a descending process, transposed Trinitarian elements into the Society's 
charism, so we, in an ascending process, starting from concrete aspects of 
that charism, can lift our gaze to the Trinity in order to see how they are 
realized in the Trinity and thus understand their meaning more fully. The 
Society's charism is enriched in this way and its purity guaranteed. We 
cannot afford to leave the Trinitarian perspective out of the renewal process 
of the Society. 

83 The person. Amid the widespread decay of moral values around us, our 
times have the merit of highlighting as never before the value of the 

person. This revaluing has become manifest in matters ecclesiastical, reli- 
gious, and even Jesuit. It is not an ideological or cultural humanism such as 
spread in the sixteenth century, but a genuine respect and reverence for 
every concrete man or woman as a unique individual, regardless of race, 
creed, social class, or country of origin. This is one of the key doctrinal 
issues of the present pontificate, just as John XXIII had previously given us, 
in his final encyclical, Pacem in terris, a luminous synthesis of the nature, 
rights, and duties of the person (no. 9 ff.). 

84 But it is in the Trinity that the concept of person finds its most perfect 
and mysterious realization. It is not only a fascinating and unsurpassable 

model but the ultimate exemplar; and by imitating this at an infinite dis- 
Itance, man can find a stimulus toward perfection not only in himself but in 
his relations with his fellow men too. After all, man as person was created in 
the image and likeness of God, who is one in Essence and triune in Persons. 

85 We start the Mass each day with a Pauline formulation of this Trinity of 
Persons: "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God the 

Father, and the communion of the Holy Spirit" (2 Cor. 13:13). This confes- 
sion epitomizes the New Testament concept of the saving function of each 
of the three divine Persons and, at the same time, of the immanent Trinity, 


Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism 4« 39 

that is, the Trinitarian mystery seen in itself. The Father is a Person inas- 
much as he is Source of the Son and, through the Son, of the Spirit; that is, 
inasmuch as he gives himself, in a communion of their common divine life, 
to the Son and the Spirit. His personal Being is a giving of his divine Being 
to the Son and, through the Son, to the Spirit. The Son too is a Person, 
inasmuch as he receives his divine life from the Father and communicates it 
to the Spirit. And the Spirit too is a Person, inasmuch as he receives from 
the Father, through the Son, a communion of that divine life. 

86 Each of the persons is not "in itself," nor does it belong to itself except 
inasmuch as it is simultaneously related to and gives itself completely to 

the other two. The being of each of the three Persons is a pure and com- 
plete extasis, a going-out, a self-giving, a vital impulse toward the other two. 
In this way a circumincession takes place, the mystery in virtue of which, by 
the unity of essence, in each of the three divine Persons the other two are 
present. The interiority of their relations is wrapped in a mystery of inti- 
macy. The Persons are three, and without being confused they compenetrate 
one another to the most intimate depths of themselves, since their Person is 
"ecstatic," with a total gift of self and a total and complete openness to the 
other two. 

87 From that incomparable model, the divine Person, the human person 
must take inspiration for his perfection and, analogically, for his fulfill- 
ment and consummation. The human person is, according to one of its most 
classical definitions, a subsistent, incommunicable, and rational being. 
Analogically, this definition applies to both divine Persons and created 
persons, although the subsistence, incommunicability, and rationality have to 
be understood in ways not identical. What constitutes the divine Person is 
the subsistent relation proper to each one precisely as that relation, that ad. 
The consummate perfection of the divine personality in its otherness is the 
exemplar of what a human personality should be: it should not close in on 
itself, but perfect itself in its relationships and otherness, renouncing all ego- 
centeredness. In the divine Persons is found the ultimate model of the "man 
for others." 

88 The Jesuit's total availability, not only to his superior in a relationship 
of obedience and receptivity of any mission but to all his brothers, is 

based on that supreme Trinitarian ideal by which the divine Persons com- 
municate themselves fully, accept, and enrich one another fully. A mysteri- 
ous circumincession in the Trinity, which is to be duplicated analogically in 
us humans as a total giving, a total mutual acceptance, a total sharing. 
Feeling myself in the other, feeling the other in myself, accepting him and 
being accepted are an ideal of supreme perfection, especially since I know 
that he is God's dwelling, that Christ is in him, suffers and loves in him, is 

40 * Pedro Arrupe, S.J. 

waiting for me in him. An apostolate conceived that way is of a purity 
without limits, of an absolute generosity. It is the plenitude of baptismal 
power communicated to us by the grace that binds us to the Trinity and to 
the community of all men, equally created and redeemed by God and 
destined to share in his divine life. 

89 Poverty and donation. The Trinitarian mystery is ultimately, then, a 
mystery of love and interpersonal communion among the divine Per- 
sons. But the diversity of this giving and receiving of the divine life is what 
makes for the distinction and perichoresis of the divine Persons within the 
Trinitarian mystery. At the ultimate reaches of so mysterious a communion, 
each Person reserves absolutely nothing for himself; all are indissolubly 
intertwined with their entire being. Communion is effected among them by 
precisely what is most incommunicable. It is a marvelous paradox. Because 
the Person is incommunicable, indeed precisely as incommunicable, he can 
communicate himself to the others without being alienated from himself. 
There is no contradiction between the absolute autonomy of each divine 
Person and their mutual relations, which consist in a total giving of them- 
selves, inasmuch as both aspects coexist in the simplest, most perfect subjects 
imaginable; those aspects are not opposed, but complementary. Since the 
three Persons have the same nature and perfections, each is as great in 
receiving from the others all he has as in giving them all he has: in the 
coexistence of the two perfections of giving and receiving everything is his 
supreme greatness. By analogy, the perfection of the human person lies in 
his analogical overcoming of that opposition. 

90 The person is, as such, social and open to relationships by its very 
nature. To the extent that these relationships are a communion and not 

only a communication, the human person affirms its autonomy and unique- 
ness: giving oneself to others is the best 
possible use of the capacity of self-determi- 
nation. Conscious affirmation of our being 

Promoting justice means and the deliberate donation of ourselves 

also restoring in ourselves are the closest r we can co ™ e to makl ^ 
the model of the Trinitar- ourselves a perfect image of the Most Holy 

, . Trinity. Certainly, the concept or person is 

tan relation. ,. j ,.„ ; ^ j j • r 

realized differently in God and in man, tor 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ in God it has to do with a Being totally 

subsistent in itself and for itself. Certainly 

too, in God the unity of nature is not only specific but numeric, whereas in 

man it is only specific. And certainly also, in God everything is perfect, 

whereas man is limited even in what is good in him. But isn't the analogy to 

be found in the totalness of our giving to others all we have? Many of the 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism •$• 41 

decisions made by GC 32 in the matter of poverty fit into this line of 
donation, sharing, and solidarity. The Society's giving of its personnel and 
works, done in a spirit of solidarity and at times extending even outside the 
Society (as in FACSI, the ongoing aid exchanged between the Society's older 
and newer units, and similar activities, if I may mention things so concrete 
and still susceptible of betterment) is an instance of our desire to improve in 
that direction. 

91 At the same time, if we consider in a Trinitarian light all of man's 
selfishness: his exploitation, his violations of human rights, his injustice, 

whatever is an undue appropriation of the material or moral possessions of 
others, which would be the complete antithesis of self-giving— are these not 
clearly the sin of atheism, inasmuch as they deny what God is in us and 
what we are for God? Are they not the impious (in the technical meaning of 
that word) negation of the concept that God has of the human person 
conceived according to the divine model, and of the relationships founded 
on giving and sharing that should exist among us? Promoting justice means 
also restoring in ourselves the model of the Trinitarian relation. Freeing the 
oppressed means also perceiving once again the sense of equality in which 
our condition as persons formed in the divine image places us. Fighting for 
peace means also rediscovering our equality as sons of the Father and 
brothers in Jesus Christ by the work of the Spirit. There is no true person 
without true donation. And whatever is opposed to donation— selfishness, 
withholding, exploitation, oppression— depersonalizes us in the Trinitarian 
sense of that word. The Society of Jesus must clearly grasp the need to give 
itself, to devote itself, if the Ignatian intuition is to continue to exist and be 
operative among us. 

92 Two extremely important concepts follow from this idea of the person 
finding its plenitude in donation: that of poverty and that of commu- 
nity. In the Trinity the interchange is so total that among the divine 
Persons everything is common. It is a total self-donation, with no limitation 
but what constitutes each Person as a subsistent relation vis-a-vis the other 
two. Thus, the Father has as specifically his own only the giving of his 
nature to the Son, that is, the personal relation of paternity; and the Father 
and Son have as specifically their own only their relationship to one another 
in the infinite love that is the Holy Spirit. Jesus was referring to this divine 
life when he said, "All I have is yours and all you have is mine" (John 

93 In his human life, Jesus is the infinite potentiation of the capacity for 
self-stripping, for "his state was divine, yet he did not cling to his 

equality with God but emptied himself to assume the condition of a slave, 
and became as men are; and being as all men are, he was humbler yet, even 


42 •!• Pedro Arrupe, S J. 

to accepting death, death on a cross" (Phil. 2:7-8). On that cross, Jesus, 
whose unique Person is divine and eternally generated by the Father, feels 
his human nature rent asunder and calls on the Father by whom he feels 
abandoned. His poverty is so complete that he needs his Father's will in 
order to continue subsisting (John 4:34). His only possession is his radical 
dependence on the Father. His wealth is his poverty, since his subsistence is 
his dependence. The poverty of the Son of God consists in that double 
attitude: receiving everything from his Father and giving everything back to 
him in thanksgiving. We ourselves are the Father's gift to the Son: "They 
were yours and you gave them to me" (John 17:6), and he enriches us with 
his poverty (2 Cor. 8-9). Jesus is the first poor man, the poor man par 
excellence: he receives us from the Father as brothers and gives us back to 
the Father as sons. As men, but also as religious, our theological poverty 
consists first of all in receiving that poverty of Jesus, that is, opening our 
selves to the gift he gives us. 

94 But these reflections on theological poverty must not be a soporific to 
distract us from actual poverty. Christ was also materially poor, and to 

an eminent degree. We saw above how Ignatius's occasion for meeting the 
Trinity was a question he had about poverty. We also saw that his reflection 
on the mission of the apostles to preach in poverty was decisive for him: it 
confirmed his election beyond all doubt. Later, the Constitutions spell out in 
a conclusive way the concrete aspects of that poverty and its connections 
with religious and apostolic life. What is more, this is the only matter 
regarding which Ignatius insists on a control: the vow not to touch poverty 
except to make it stricter required of those who have access to the general 
congregation, the one agency that can change the Constitutions. 

95 It is not surprising that in the Exercises poverty "both spiritual and 
actual" (SpEx 98, 146, 147, 157, 167) should be a pivotal point for deter- 
mining the process of following Christ. For us Jesuits who have individually 
and collectively opted to follow Christ in a total way with "offerings of 
greater value and of more importance" (SpEx 97, 98), this theological poverty 
must lead us, in fact, to actual poverty. In the light of this Trinitarian 
poverty and total disappropriation, many of our religious catchwords in this 
area take on their full meaning: frugality, the standard of living of honest 
priests, the life like that of the poor, solidarity with the poor. In that light, 
too, many of the sufferings of our day appear in all their poignant tragedy: 
the absolute dereliction of individuals and of whole peoples, the spiritual 
anguish of nonbelievers, the moral misery of those who deny by their day- 
to-day lives what they believe in the depths of their hearts. The Lord who 
redeemed us in poverty can be helped only in poverty and from poverty. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism + 43 

96 Community. The community is an element of religious life that has 
received in recent times a necessary and proper revaluation. Everything 

leads us to think that the possibilities and riches that lie hidden in commu- 
nity living have by no means been fully exploited and that the future will 
bring them out more and more clearly. This means not simply a transfer to 
religious life of the collectivist or group tendency that seems to be operative 
at every level of life— in economic, political, social, national, and interna- 
tional communities. The religious community does not arise from consider- 
ations taken from the secular or mundane world. Nor does it come primar- 
ily from a religious sublimation of man's innate sociability. Its origin is 
much loftier. In a very full sense we can say, "Congregavit nos in unum 
Christi amor" [the love of Christ has gathered us together into one]. 

97 It is curious that the word "community" does not appear even once in 
the Constitutions, nor to we find anything in the ' Constitutions that 

resembles a theory or spirituality of the community. They speak rather of 
houses, of union (and with- what eloquence!) and the means that can help 
preserve it, of the precautions with which we must protect it and, in the 
most vigorous terms, the measures we must take against those who offend it. 
Ignatius speaks too of the "body" of the Society: indeed, it is one of his 
favorite ideas. It is a kindred concept to that of the mystical or moral body, 
with its head and members, its distinction of functions and coordination 
toward a purpose, toward a mission. 

98 It is interesting that Ignatius, whose Spiritual Journal tells us that he was 
brought to contemplate the bliss of the community of Persons in the 

Most Holy Trinity, has left us in the Constitutions a precious insight into 
the Trinitarian foundation of every authentic religious community, on 
which any further development would have to be built: "The chief bond to 
cement the union of the members among themselves and with their head is, 
on both sides, the love of God our Lord. For when the superior and the 
subjects are closely united to his divine" and supreme Goodness, they will 
very easily be united among themselves." The paragraph might well have 
ended there and all would have been adequately explained. But Ignatius 
specifies further, and introduces his idea of the descent of all things from the 
Trinity. He goes on, "They will very easily be united among themselves 
through that same love that will descend from the divine Goodness and 
spread to all other men, and particularly into the body of the Society." 85 For 
Ignatius, the Society, as a global community of all who have been formed 
into one body, has as its foundation the love that binds together the three 
divine Persons. This love makes possible the continued existence, as one 

5 Constitutions, 671, conveniently found in ConsNorms, p. 326. 

44 * Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 

body, of what is a "community for dispersion." Only by keeping in high 
relief this Trinitarian imprint of what constitutes the community will it be 
able to keep performing in the future the primordial role in the renewal of 
religious life that Vatican II assigns to it. Only by a strengthening of the 
love bond can the built-in tensions of the community be dispelled: unity and 
pluralism, individual good and common good, dialogue and obedience, 
cohesion and dispersion, and so forth. 

99 But how can our communities be inspired by the Trinitarian model of 
personal plurality? The answer is easy: by love and by the mission 

given under obedience. Communion among us reflects the divine koinonia, 
for God wanted to bind us to himself by love, for a mission given to us, 
under obedience, not only as individuals but as sharers together in an 

apostolic conspiration proceeding from 
him. The union that exists among us fol- 

The Jesuit community, lows » &**?«**■ Th « unification that 

r n - m.i t* • •* ' ■ the Spirit brines about in a community 

following the Trinitarian r . , , .... J 

, T . . T i • proceeds trom that very unity which oper- 

modeL is united ad intra \ ■ . , r l t • awl c 

* ates in the heart or the Innity. what St. 

by a sincere love and Augustine said of the ecclesial unit is 

charity y and ad extra by found in an eminent way in a religious 

the community ofapOS- community; it is the proper work of the 

tolic service received as Holy Spirit, as Father and Son cooperate: 

mission. the Spirit constitutes somehow the society 

of the Father and Son by being possessed 
^ — — ^ — communitarily by both of them. 86 Just as 

the divine unity between Father and Son 
culminates, as a society of love, in the relation that both have with the one 
Spirit, so the ecclesial community, and concretely the religious community, 
attains its unity in the Spirit and by the Spirit. It is love made a Person that 
brings about unity in the Church. It must also be, and is in fact, what 
infuses an agglutinating charity into the members of a religious community. 

100 The Trinitarian community, as we saw above when treating of persons, 
is of a mysterious nature and perfection. By their circumincession and 

their perichoresis, the three divine Persons maintain a union that is unlimited 
life and communication. Not only is everything common among them, but 
they are, just as each one of them is, the divine life that is numerically one: 
there is no more life in the three Persons than is found in one of them, since 
the three exist by a real identity in the same divine being. In them, and only 
in them, the unity of love is the unity of essence. The only difference 


Sermon 41, in Patrologue cursus Latince, 38:463 f. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism 4* 45 

among them is the supreme distinction of their relations, of being Persons, 
which ensures the divine intimacy of their koinonia. The three Persons are 
coeternal, coequal, and consubstantial, not only by their unity of essence but 
by their very intercommunion and union of love. 

101 But that community is also manifested by their conspiration in opera- 
tions ad extra, with no other differences than the attributions. No one 

of them acts without the others, because none exists without the others. 
This is not only a requirement of their unity of essence, but a direct conse- 
quence too, and primarily so, of their intimate koinonia. Christ will say, "It 
is the Father, living in me, who does this work" (John 14:10). The principle 
of all their operations is the essence or nature common to the three Persons: 
the Persons are co-agents, just as they are coexistent, because each one is in 
the other two indissociably. There is a common operation because there is a 
communion in being. 

102 It is worthwhile applying all this to the Incarnation of the Son as a 
Trinitarian mission: at Manresa, already enlightened by the loftiest 

contemplation, Ignatius has no other framework than this Trinitarian one 
for explaining the decree of the Incarnation. Jesus' mission to the apostles is 
similarly given under a Trinitarian sign (Matt. 28-29), as is his apostolic 
confirmation (John 14:26 and 15:26). Paul so understands it too (Eph. 1:3-14 
and 2:18). For Ignatius, mission and apostolic community are existentially 
united in the Trinitarian communication of La Storta. Hence we may state 
that the Jesuit community, following the Trinitarian model, is united ad 
intra by a sincere love and charity, and ad extra by the community of 
apostolic service received as mission. Whatever development communities are 
to have in the future should be, if we want it to be an organic, noncancer- 
ous development, in function of love and mission, elements that have in the 
Trinity their loftiest expression. The Trinity is, then, the supreme, mysteri- 
ous model to which we come with analogies and obscurities, but to which 
we must keep returning in order to keep the Society in a permanent state of 
inspiration, so that it will be ever new and ever Ignatian. 

103 I want to end where I began. I realize that there are many other 
concepts beside those explained here, and that some that I have touched 

on need a fuller explanation, for which the Fontes narrativi of the history of 
the Society offer an immense material. There is, too, an abundant bibliogra- 
phy on each one of those headings. What I hoped to do here was to project 
a certain amount of light on the connection that many of them have, as 
elements in the Ignatian charism, with Ignatius's call and acceptance into the 
intimacy of sublime Trinitarian communications, and to make today's Jesuits 
more aware of all that, thus opening up an avenue toward a richer under- 
standing and a fuller application of the Ignatian charism. But this can only 

46 * Pedro Arrupe, S.J. 

be a beginning. At this point, I invite our theologians and specialists in 
Ignatian spirituality to extend and delve further into these studies. 

104 If contemplating the mystery of the Trinity enabled Ignatius to reach 
certain practical decisions that his day needed, for example, the founda- 
tion of the Society with its specific charism, then shedding light on that fact 
and its relevance today will enable us to live that charism in all its purity 
and to be more adequate to our day's needs. If we can do that, we shall have 
managed the aggiornamento that Vatican II asked for, by going back to the 
sources of our birth as religious. 

105 I sometimes wonder if the lack of proportion between the generous 
efforts that the Society has made in recent years and the slowness with 

which the hoped-for inner renewal and apostolic adaptation to the needs of 
today proceed in certain places— a topic that often preoccupies me 87 — isn't 
due in great part to the fact that our zeal for brave new undertakings has 
overshadowed our theological-spiritual efforts to discover and live the 
dynamic and content of our founder's inner itinerary, which leads directly 
to the Trinity and then descends from it to the concrete service of the 
Church and the help of souls. 

106 Will some of us say that all this is too arcane an idea, too remote from 
the realities of our daily lives? That would be to close our eyes to the 

very foundations of our faith, to the very reason for our existence. We have 
been created in the image and likeness of God, who is one and triune. Our 
life of grace is a participation in that same life. And our destiny is to be 
assumed into the glory of God the Father, through the Son's redemption 
and in the Holy Spirit. Christ, whom and with whom we serve, has that 
mission of bringing us to the Father and sending the Holy Spirit to assist in 
sanctifying us, that is, in perfecting the divine life in us. These are the great 

107 Just as being "inserted" into the world invigorates our apostolic zeal by 
enabling us to know at first hand the realities and needs in which the 

redemption and sanctification of our brothers is worked out, so knowing the 
place of the Trinity in the gestation of our charism gives us a living partici- 
pation in that divine life which is knowledge and love, and directs our 
apostolic zeal along the right road. Even more: practical experience strength- 
ens and deepens our knowledge down on the level of earthly realities; but at 
the level of spiritual contemplation, a living knowledge of God is already a 
sharing and a bliss, a via ad Ilium, as the Society is called in the Formula of 

87 See "Allocutions to the Sixty-Sixth Procurators' Congregation, 1978," in Acta 
Romana 17:423, 519. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Cbarism •!• 47 

Julius III; S& it is the way to the Trinity. That is the road the Society must 
travel; a long road that will end only when we arrive at the plenitude of 
Christ's Kingdom. But the road has been traced out for us and we must 
travel it, following the footsteps of Christ as he returns to his Father, 
illumined and strengthened by the Spirit who dwells in us. 

108 We should make this sublime mystery of the Trinity the special object 
of our thoughts and prayers. Such an invitation is no novelty. Indeed, 
Nadal, who was best informed about the Ignatian charism, extended it to the 
whole Society more than four centuries ago. His voice comes down even to us: 

I hold it for certain that this privilege granted to our father Ignatius is given 
to the Society also, and that his grace of prayer and contemplation is 
prepared for all of us in the Society, since it is linked with our vocation. 

[Let us place the perfection of our prayer in a contemplation of the Trinity, 
then, in love and in the union of charity, which includes our neighbors too 
by the ministries of our vocation. 89 

An Invocation to the Trinity 

109 O Most Holy Trinity! Primal mystery, source of everything! "Who has 
ever seen him, to give a description? Who can glorify him as he de- 
serves?" (Sir. 43:31). I feel you so sublime, so far from me, so profound a 
mystery that I must cry out from the bottom of my heart "Holy, holy, holy 
Lord God of hosts, heaven and earth are full of your glory. Hosanna in the 
highest!" The more I feel your "inaccessible greatness" (1 Tim. 6:16), the 
more I feel my own "puniness and nothingness" (Ps. 38:6). And yet, plung- 
ing deeper and deeper into the abyss of that nothingness, I meet you at the 
very depths of my being, intimior intimo rngo, 90 loving me, sustaining me so 
that I will not lapse back into nothing, working through me, for me, with 
me in a mysterious communion of love (SpEx 236). 

Kneeling before you, I dare to raise my plea, to ask for your 
wisdom, even though realizing that the summit of man's knowledge of you 
means knowing that he knows nothing of you. 91 But I also know that the 

"Formula Insti. Julii III," no. 1, in ConsNorms 3 f. 

Nadal, "In examen annotationes," no. 82, in Commentlnst 163 f. 

St. Augustine, Confessions, trans. Hal W. Helms (Orleans [Mass], 1986). 

Thomas Aquinas, De potentia (London, 1932-34), q. 7, a. 5, ad 14. 

48 * Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 

obscurity is suffused with the light of the mystery that eludes me. Give me 
that "mysterious, hidden wisdom of God, destined since before the ages 
began to be for our glory" (1 Cor. 2:3). 

As a son of Ignatius and called to live his vocation, which you have 
chosen me for, I ask you for some of that "unusual," "exceptional," "extraor- 
dinary" light from the depths of the Trinity, so that I can appreciate the 
charism of Ignatius, accept it, and live it as it should be lived in this histori- 
cal moment of your Society. 

Grant me, Lord, to see everything now with new eyes, to discern 
and test the spirits that help me read the signs of the times, to relish the 
things that are yours, and to communicate them to others. Give me the 
clarity of understanding that you gave Ignatius. 92 

I want you to start treating me, Lord, as a schoolteacher does a 
child (PilgTest [27]), for I am ready to follow even a little dog, in order to go 
the right way (PilgTest [23]). 

Let your light be for me like the burning bush for Moses, the light 
of Damascus for Paul, the Cardoner and La Storta for Ignatius. That is, a 
call to set out on a road that may be obscure, but that will open up before 
me, as happened to Ignatius when he was following it. 93 

Grant me that Trin itarian lip^hr which enabled Ignatius to grasp 
your mysteries so profoundly that he could write, "There was no more to 
know in this matter of the Most Holy Trinity" (Spjr Feb. 21, 1544). Like 
him, I want to feel that everything ends in you (ibid., March 3, 1544). 

I ask you too to teach me the meaning, for me and for the Society, 
of what you showed Ignatius. Grant that we may learn more and more the 
treasures of your mystery, which will help us to advance without going 
astray along the road of the Society, which is via nostra ad te. 94 Convince us 
that you are the source of our vocation and that we will achieve far more if 
we try to penetrate your mysteries in contemplation and to live the divine 
life abundantius, than we would by turning to merely human means and 
activities. We know that our prayer leads us to action and that "no one is 
helped by you in the Society just for himself." 95 

92 Lainez, "Epistola," no. 10, in FN 1:80. 

See n. 53 above. 
94 "Formula Inst. Julii III," 1, in ConsNorms 3 f. 
5 See n. 83 above. 

Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism 4* 49 

Like Ignatius, I bend my knees to thank you for this so sublime 
Trinitarian vocation to the Society; 96 like St. Paul too, who bent his knees 
before the Father, I beg you to grant to the whole Society that "planted in 
love and built on love, it will with all the saints have strength to grasp the 
breadth and the length, the height and the depth," and that, knowing the 
love of Christ, which is beyond all knowledge, I too may be filled with the 
utter fullness of you, Most Holy Trinity (see Eph. 3:14-29). Give me your 
Spirit who "reaches the depths of everything, even the depths of God" 
(1 Cor. 2:10). 

To attain that fullness, I follow the advice of Nadal to put my 
prayer by preference in "a contemplation of the Trinity, in love and in the 
union of charity, which includes our neighbors too by the ministries of our 



I end with the prayer of Ignatius: "Eternal Father, confirm me; 
Eternal Son, confirm me; Holy Spirit, confirm me; Holy Trinity, confirm 
me; my one only God, confirm me" (Spjr Feb. 18, 1544). 

96 See n. 52 above. 
?7 See n. 90 above. 



Reflections on Fr. Arrupe's Address 

Perception of Man and Mission 
by Richard A. Blake, S.J. 

Fr. Blake teaches film studies at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA. 

Xveading through Fr. Arrupe's essay stirred memories of two long-past 
exchanges with brother Jesuits, one older and one younger thgji I. The first 
occurred shortly after Fr. Arrupe's death. As two of us were looking over 
the obituary notices and documents that started to arrive, I remarked that I 
was grateful for the privilege of living through one of the great generalates in 
the history of the Society. My senior companion rolled his eyes heavenward 
in disbelief and gasped, "O God." 

The second involved a conversation with a man in charge of 
formation, who spoke about the discomfort many scholastics feel during 
their visits to higher-education communities. I thought the age differential 
might be the source of the problem. "No," he replied. "Those guys [in 
higher education] represent everything that we teach them is wrong with the 

A man of his time, my older friend had for many years found 
himself growing ever more disconcerted by the instability he saw in his 
country after the Vietnam protests, in the Church after Vatican II, and in 
the Society after GC 32. For him Fr. Arrupe stood as a symbol, if not the 
cause, of the disintegration of all that he had known, loved, and served 
throughout his Jesuit life. 

The younger man had done his own formation during the Arrupe 
years. In his enthusiastic dedication to social service as a means to promote 
faith in the service of justice, he had concluded that Jesuit institutions of 
higher education had become obstacles to the true work of the Society, a 
refuge from the real world, where Jesuits could retreat into an ivory tower 
of comfort and privilege. He could, and did, support his perception by 
quoting, extensively and selectively, from documents of the congregations 
and from Fr. Arrupe, whom he idolized. 

From the distance of several years, it seems clear that both men had 
drawn a simple stick cartoon of Fr. Arrupe and reduced the man to a 
caricature. Still, both were absolutely right in their perception that the 
impulse toward commitment to justice, so clearly identified with the man, 
held extraordinary consequences for the Society as a whole and for each 
individual Jesuit as well. Both, however, were absolutely wrong in trying to 
interpret his importance in terms of their own limited perspective. Pedro 


Reflections 4* 51 

Arrupe was far more complex, far bigger than their two-dimensional portrait 
of him. 

I wonder if many other Jesuits, myself included, don't often try to 
fit him onto a single page of their sketch pad. His extraordinarily complex 
mind and heart, once reduced to a few straight lines, become less challeng- 
ing, less upsetting, less exhilarating. 

Now, ten years after his death, Pedro Arrupe deserves a serious 
reconsideration from all of us. His essay "The Trinitarian Inspiration of the 
Ignatian Charism," coming not too far from the end of his active life, 
provides a summary statement in his own hand. Recalling the spiritual 
journey of Ignatius from the Cardoner to Rome, Fr. Arrupe grounds the 
outward, ministerial mission of the Society of Jesus in the relation between 
Persons that Ignatius perceived in the Trinity. Each Person "is" for the 
Others. Faith in the service of justice is but a contemporary expression of 
that fundamental illumination in the life of Ignatius. 

When set in its Trinitarian context, the mission of the Society 
envisioned by Ignatius encompasses all modes of expression, from serving 
lepers on the edge of the jungle to editing manuscripts in the Vatican 
library, from directing cloistered religious to dialoging with leaders of the 
business world or entertainment industry. As Fr. Arrupe reminds us, since 
"Ignatius conceives everything as issuing from and going back to the Trin- 
ity" (para. 69), "there is no ministry that falls outside the Society's field of 
apostolate" (para. 70). 

Reading this essay confirms my judgment that both my friends were 
wrong in their perception of both Pedro Arrupe and the mission of the 
Society. This thoughtful essay helped me gain a better sense of him and of 
that mission. 

Getting It Right 
by William A. Barry, SJ. 

Fr. Barry directs the tertianship program and is a writer 
at Campion Renewal Center, Weston, MA. 

in his years as superior general, Pedro Arrupe took very seriously the 
injunction of the Second Vatican Council that religious orders needed to 
return to the sources of their charism and at the same time to adapt the 
expressions of the charism to the changed circumstances of our time. He 
considered this address one of his legacies to the Society. He has assisted us 
both to return to the sources and to adapt to our own times. As we read 

52 * Pedro Arrupe, S J. 

these pages, we become aware of a central aspect of Ignatian and Jesuit 
spirituality, its focus on the God revealed through the life, death, and 
resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. Even as a novice in the spiritual life, 
untutored in theology, Ignatius was granted extraordinary revelations of the 
inner life of our triune God. Arrupe shows us how the revelation at the 
Cardoner transformed Ignatius from a rather eccentric, ascetic loner into the 
discerning man who eventually was led to found the Society of Jesus. Before 
the Cardoner, it appears, he could have ended up as a solitary, somewhat 
peculiar beggar in Jerusalem or someplace else; the experience at the Cardo- 
ner led him to discern the way he needed to live in order to be able to help 
souls. This transformation was the result of the intervention of God, not of 
any efforts on Ignatius's part. From this experience Ignatius embarked on a 
journey marked at every stage by a constant desire to know where God 
wanted to lead him personally and through him the nascent Society of Jesus. 
Arrupe shows us how intensely Ignatius prayed that the Trinity would 
confirm his inspirations regarding his and his companions' mode of life. 
Ignatius came to believe that he had a call from God to do something 
momentous for the Church and the world. He wanted to get it right. 
Arrupe uses the entries of the Spiritual Journal to show how insistent 
Ignatius was that the Trinity should confirm his discernment about the 
poverty of the Society, since his discernment ran counter to the original 
discernment of his ten companions. 

In addition, Arrupe's analysis of the Ignatian sources gives us a 
clearer picture of the interior life of Ignatius, the superior general of this 
growing order. He knew that the Society was breaking new ground in the 
Church as a religious order. He wanted to make sure that he and the Society 
were getting it right. No blueprints had come down to him from the past 
that he could ultimately rely on. He had to put his trust in the experience of 
the companions and especially in his own experience. We have the pages of 
his notes for the year during which he was working on the issue of the 
poverty of the Society. But we know that many more pages existed at one 
time. It can safely be assumed that Ignatius took the same care to ask for 
confirmation on many other occasions when faced with difficult decisions. 
Here we have an example of the ideal not only of how superiors should 
conduct themselves but also of how all of us need to act as we engage in our 
various apostolates. Like Ignatius, we are engaged in important tasks for the 
Lord, or better, in union with the Lord. We, too, want to get it right. What 
better way than to follow the example of Ignatius in our daily lives? 

In the final section, Arrupe takes it upon himself to draw out the 
implications of his findings for the contemporary Society. The Constitutions 
state: "The Society was not instituted by human means; and it is not 

Reflections 4* 53 

through them that it can be preserved and increased, but through the grace 
of the omnipotent hand of Christ our God and Lord" (no. 812). Arrupe uses 
Trinitarian theology to illuminate central challenges faced by the Society 
today. In a brilliant tour de force, he brings this theology to bear on the 
Society's call to combat atheism, to promote justice, to live in actual pov- 
erty, and to sustain communities for mission. It is very appropriate that 
STUDIES IN JESUIT SPIRITUALITY publish this timely and inspiring mono- 
graph. Let us hope that we will make the final prayer to the Trinity our 
own. Pedro Arrupe did the Society a great service with these pages. His 
urgent plea that Jesuits follow the injunction of Nadal needs to touch all of 
us. "Let us place the perfection of our prayer in a contemplation of the 
Trinity, then, in love and in the union of charity, which includes our 
neighbors too by the ministries of our vocation." 

Portrait and Landscape 
by Philip J. Chmielewski, S J. 

Fr. Chmielewski teaches religious social ethics at Loyola University, Chicago, IL. 

1 he computer printer sometimes confronts me with the question, "Land- 
scape or portrait?" Even late at night, I realize that the eager microchip does 
not want to decorate my office. Then I remember that the friendly silicon 
actually wants to know what will be the orientation of the text that it is 
about to reproduce. For us in the Society, Fr. Arrupe has generated a text 
that offers both an Ignatian portrait and a Jesuit landscape. 

Arrupe comments on Ignatius 's habit of exactitude in his Spiritual 
Journal (para. 56). I suppose readers have sometimes been put off by this 
carefulness. Perhaps they can more easily move through this material if they 
think of it as similar to the log of an early seafarer noting the repetitions, 
gaps, and wonders of a coastline or, more generally, of an eager traveler's 
detailed journal of wines consumed, persons met, and wide spaces traversed. 

Arrupe sketches out two routes of travel (para. 107): (a) across and 
through everyday realities and (b) into the vitality of the Trinity. Practical 
experience travels the road of our needs and duties. Prayer moves us along 
the via ad Ilium. Schedules and sickness, committees and conferences consti- 
tute the former landscape. The second route covers a different terrain. We 
can track the moments when a new source of hope springs up in us or when 
we are able to lead someone to survey a fresh lode of compassion within 
ourselves. Still traveling along this second route, we might log those spots 
where we have engaged another person as a brother or sister, so that we 
become heartened to travel the Way once again. Or, conversely, we experi- 

54 •!• Pedro Arrupe, S.J. 

ence a sense of being sent, for example, through an MBA or to the JVC. Then 
again, our travels may lead us to recognize those places in the course of the 
week when imaginatively solving a problem leads to parish peace or even 
when our surprising gesture brings joy in a halfway house. In such instances, 
Ignatius himself or his followers find the landscape crossed by the road to 
the Trinity. 

All Jesuit landscapes are pilgrim paths. To be a Jesuit is to live the 
pilgrim life, as did Ignatius. Pedro Arrupe speaks of the development of the 
personality of Ignatius (para. 30). In paragraph 26, he had just used the 
phrase— taken from Favre and Polanco— "to follow Ignatius." How is it then 
that to follow Ignatius means taking up the task of allowing the Trinity to 
shape one's personality? Each Jesuit is to receive his proper portrait. How? 

Fr. Arrupe speaks of the second route of travel— into the full life of 
the Trinity — as bringing "a bliss." Those times when I am inclined with a 
certain devout cynicism to think of such deep delight as a tinsel throwaway, 
a hood ornament above the engine of real work, I am helped by the many 
stories of Pedro Arrupe's verve and gladness. I am helped when I think that 
he sought to be engaged with this joy across the varied, indeed, sharply 
troubled, landscapes of his life. 

What if we map Jesuit living as a daily pursuit of "delight"? That is, 
either we hunt the Lord in our days or we merely pound the pavement. 
Arrupe's "rejoicing" (para. 60) and his "relishing" (para. 109.4) remind us of 
this coloration in the Ignatian portrait. To be sure, for a Jesuit, as Nadal 
notes, the cross is our delight (para. 75). Yet Fr. Arrupe offers this Jesuit 
sense of penance and abnegation and suffering, a means to highlight the 
constructing of personalities. Joy is not superficial "feeling good." Joy and 
delight shape the soul. Jesuit delight in the cross is a path of making a 
friendship with the Lord. The cross then represents what delight frequently 
signals: movement and intimacy. Finally, the Jesuit focus on the cross— and 
with those who carry crosses — is a source of delight because the cross takes 
the individual into the life of the Trinity. Via cruris: each word counts. 

This joy is divine in its origin, articulation, and vitality. The Trinity 
imparts a perduring, personal joy. This joy is the affective signal of glory. It 
offers each individual the means for grasping what glory may be. Glory is to 
the internal landscape what service is for the global, actual landscape (para. 
69). Deeper joy, major gloria, greater service. 

Another potential annoyance in Ignatius's Spiritual Journey, in 
addition to what appears to be major-league detailing of minute, internal 
motions, is his habit of omitting key information about his experiences and 

Reflections •!• 55 

illuminations. Fr. Arrupe takes this up as the founder's desire to be discrete, 
humble, and judicious (para. 64), as Ignatius's urgency in respect and rever- 
ence. This discretion is not only a reverence before the wonder of his 
experience but also a respect for us who are to follow Ignatius. The journey 
of a Jesuit requires the shaping of a personality— a portrayal of the self for 
others. The Trinity brings about this shaping. The experience of the vitality 
of the Persons of the Trinity makes the disciple. Intimacy individuates. Not 
just our peers, not just our family histories, not just the way the Lord 
engages each of us differently in prayer— still more than do those influences, 
the Trinity molds each Jesuit into a particular image and likeness — a portrait, 
if you will. 

So, when Arrupe is sharing Ignatius's concern for an ardent, effec- 
tive union among the far-flung and rambunctious brethren (para. 97), he has 
prepared the way for this in his reflections on Trinitarian dynamics (para. 
89). Jesuits will flourish together when each achieves and acknowledges 
diversity and when each man recognizes his and his brother's mystery— that 
is, those features of our personal geography that are sensed yet resisting 
articulation, given to others but ungrasped. Arrupe also implies that the 
early Jesuits manifested an eager abandon in travel because each became 
"great in receiving from the others." Mutual receptiveness established vital 
community for a mad dispersion. 

At the wayside chapel of La Storta, Ignatius, encountering Jesus 
carrying the cross, receives the final shaping of his self (para. 47). Subse- 
quently, Ignatius offered his first Mass as a priest at St. Mary Major's (para. 
35). After the loss of the Holy Land to Moslem control, relics, particularly 
those connected with Bethlehem, were treasured at this basilica. So, just as 
its mosaics recall the topography of Paradise, the church recalls a distant 
New Testament landscape. The gold that gilds the ceiling beams of the nave 
was the first gold brought back from the Western Hemisphere, gold given 
by the Spanish king to the center of his Church in Rome. Thus, the basilica 
recalls the New World. St. Mary Major's also enshrines a picture of the 
Virgin and Child from the hand of St. Luke. The evangelist who depicts the 
Man of the Way and who pens St. Paul's travels provides for Ignatius's 
prayer this icon of mission. Within the framework of these landscapes and 
carried by the rhythm of these movements, Ignatius, the new priest, brings 
the Son to the table; he enacts a Eucharistic theology that takes up the 
whole world. 

Ignatius, created in the image and likeness, desires the Trinity and 
what the Trinity longs for. Ignatius, open to the world, is drawn into the 
Trinity. Ignatius, attentive to the Persons of the Trinity, longs for poverty, 
in order to step swiftly and ever nearer to the world. Justice (para. 91) 

56 * Pedro Arrupe, SJ. 

becomes each one's receiving his or her distinctive own and bestowing it still 
further. He wishes to give himself fully— a self the Trinity has shaped— in 
order to bring all back to the Father (para. 93). 

Fr. Arrupe makes use of key Ignatian texts to urge each of us to a 
both Spirited particularity and to a Trinitarian comprehensive reach. He 
would like us to traverse together the long road to the Trinity across the 
deeply troubled landscape of our worlds. 

A Model of Intimacy 
by James F. Keenan, S.J. 

Fr. Keenan teaches moral theology at Weston Jesuit School of Theology, 

Cambridge, MA. 

-Decause of my interest in the relationship between spirituality and moral- 
ity, I became interested in a primary insight: the Imago Dei. It's a great 
concept because it basically prompts us to realize that whenever we want to 
ask who we are, we need to first ask who God is. 

When I was a student here at Weston Jesuit School of Theology, I 
remember taking courses with Brian McDermott and Leo O'Donovan. It 
was the mid-1970s and we were all studying Karl Rahner. I've never been a 
systematic theologian, but two insights from those courses about the nature 
of God and humanity have always remained with me. (Fr. Rahner may turn 
over in his grave at what I think I remember, and both McDermott and 
O'Donovan may at least, to continue the metaphor, roll their eyes.) But 
here's what I remember. First, God had to be triune: if the nature of God is 
love, then God had to be three persons in one being. God had to be able to 
be, if you will, more than one, and two would not be enough. Second, 
humanity was created because God (being LOVE) needed to love more than 
God's self. 

I love the truth of the Trinity. I love that we (not I) are created in 
God's image. It's not, after all, that I try to find a multiplicity of persons 
within me! Rather, I realize that we, humanity, are made in God's image. I 
realize that each of us needs one another in order to be persons (such a great 
Trinitarian word!). That is the Trinitarian claim, if I understand it rightly: 
Each of the persons of the Trinity needs one another to be God. Thus, 
being in the image of God, we need one another to be human. It is refresh- 
ing to see how Fr. Arrupe retrieved this rich charism from St. Ignatius, and 
how significant an impact this dimension of our charism can have on us. His 
essay provides a great occasion for reflecting on how and why we can 

Reflections •!• 57 

develop exercises of intimacy with one another. The model that he proposes 
is incredibly intimate: nothing short of God, in whose image we are made, a 
God who is intrinsically interrelational. 

Are we not intrinsically interrelational? Are not my vows your 
vows? Is not my charism a share in yours? Do we not need one another? 
Did we not enter to be with one another? And are we not called to love one 

In our wonderful culture that promotes the autonomy of the 
individual, we Jesuits are invited to discover in one another the possibility of 
becoming the glory of God by being in relationship. Can we not reflect 
more on how, through our own apostolic and communal activities, we are 
called to become, with and through one another, human persons? 

We Jesuits are known for our apostolates, for our mission. Would it 
not be remarkable if we Jesuits were known not only for the excellence of 
our institutions but also for the deeply personal way we treat one another? 


Marian Cowan, C.S.J., and 
John Carroll Futrell, S.J. 

Companions in Grace 

A Handbook for Directors of the Spiritual 
Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola 

A guide and companion for those who direct others in 
making the Spiritual Exercises. A new edition of a 1980 
classic, by two outstanding experts in the field. Each of 
the four Weeks of the Exercises is treated in detail, and 
the book includes sections on Ignatius's rule for dis- 
cernment, directing an eight-day retreat, the 
nineteenth-annotation retreat, annotation eighteen, and 

Paper ISBN 1-880810-38-7 

pp. vii + 249: $18.95 

Roberto de Nobili, S.J. 
(Trans. Anand Amaladass, S.J., and Francis X. Clooney, S.J.) 

Preaching Wisdom to the Wise 

Three Treatises by Roberto de Nobili, S.J. 

How should the Christian faith be communicated to a 
non-European culture? Roberto de Nobili was one of 
the earliest Jesuit missionaries to address this question. 
This book gives three of de Nobili's treatises, classic 
early examples of a move toward what would now be 
called "inculturation," as well as an introduction by the 
translators that both critiques de Nobili's approach and 
appreciates his greatness. 





Paper ISBN 1-880810-37-9 
pp. xxii + 345: $29.95 
Both books will be available in May 2000. 





Past Issues: Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 

(For prices, see inside back cover.) 

1/1 Sheets* Profile of the Contemporary Jesuit (Sept. 1969) 

1/2 Ganss, Authentic Spiritual Exercises: History and Terminology (Nov. 1969) 

2/1 Burke, Institution and Person (Feb. 1970) 

2/2 Futrell, Ignatian Discernment (Apr. 1970) 

2/3 Lonergan, Response of the Jesuit as Priest and Apostle (Sept. 1970) 

3/1 Wright, Grace of Our Founder and the Grace of Our Vocation (Feb. 1971) 

3/2 O'Flaherty, Some Reflections on Jesuit Commitment (Apr. 1971) 

3/4 Toner, A Method for Communal Discernment of God's. Will (Sept. 1971) 

3/5 Sheets, Toward a Theology of the Religious Life (Nov. 1971) 

4/2 Two Discussions: I. Spiritual Direction, II. Leadership and Authority (Mar. 1972) 

4/3 Orsy, Some Questions about the Purpose and Scope of the General Congregation (June 1972) 

4/4 Ganss, Wright, O'Malley, O'Donovan, Dulles, On Continuity and Change: A Symposium 
(Oct. 1972) 

5/1-2 O'Flaherty, Renewal: Call and Response (Jan.-Mar. 1973) 

5/3 Arrupe, McNaspy, The Place of Art in Jesuit Life (Apr. 1973) 

5/4 Haughey, The Pentecostal Thing and Jesuits (June 1973) 

5/5 Orsy, Toward a Theological Evaluation of Communal Discernment (Oct. 1973) 

6/3 Knight, Joy and Judgment in Religious Obedience (Apr. 1974) 

7/1 Wright, Ganss, Orsy, On Thinking with the Church Today (Jan. 1975) 

7/2 Ganss, Christian Life Communities from the Sodalities (Mar. 1975) 

7/3 Connolly, Contemporary Spiritual Direction: Scope and Principles (June 1975) 

7/5 Buckley, The Confirmation of a Promise; Padberg, Continuity and Change in General 

Congregation XXXII (Nov. 1975) 

8/1 O'Neill, Acatamiento: Ignatian Reverence (Jan. 1976) 

8/2-3 De la Costa, Sheridan, and others, On Becoming Poor: A Symposium on Evangelical Poverty 
(Mar.-May 1976) 

8/4 Faricy, Jesuit Community: Community of Prayer (Oct. 1976) 

9/1-2 Becker, Changes in U.S. Jesuit Membership, 1958-73; Others, Reactions and Explanations 
Qan.-Mar. 1977) 

9/4 Connolly, Land, Jesuit Spiritualities and the Struggle for Social Justice (Sept. 1977). 

9/5 Gill, A Jesuit's Account of Conscience (Nov. 1977) 

10/1 Kammer, "Burn-Out"— Dilemma for the Jesuit Social Activist (Jan. 1978) 

10/4 Harvanek, Status of Obedience in the Society of Jesus; Others, Reactions to Connolly-Land 

(Sept. 1978) 

11/1 Clancy, Feeling Bad about Feeling Good (Jan. 1979) 

11/2 Maruca, Our Personal Witness as Power to Evangelize Culture (Mar. 1979) 

11/3 Klein, American Jesuits and the Liturgy (May 1979) 

11/5 Conwell, The Kamikaze Factor: Choosing Jesuit Ministries (Nov. 1979) 

12/2 Henriot, Appleyard, Klein, Living Together in Mission: A Symposium on Small Apostolic 

Communities (Mar. 1980) 

12/3 Conwell, Living and Dying in the Society of Jesus (May 1980) 

12/4-5 Schineller, Newer Approaches to Christology and Their Use in the Spiritual Exercises (Sept. -Nov. 

13/1 Peter, Alcoholism in Jesuit Life (Jan. 1981) 

13/3 Ganss, Towards Understanding the Jesuit Brothers' Vocation (May 1981) 

13/4 Reites, St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Jews (Sept. 1981) 

14/1 O'Malley, The Jesuits, St. Ignatius, and the Counter Reformation (Jan. 1982) 

14/2 Dulles, St. Ignatius and Jesuit Theological Tradition (Mar. 1982) 

14/4 Gray, An Experience in Ignatian Government (Sept. 1982) 

14/5 Ivern, The Future of Faith and Justice: Review of Decree Four (Nov. 1982) 

15/1 O'Malley, The Fourth Vow in Its Ignatian Context (Jan. 1983) 

15/2 Sullivan and Faricy, On Making the Spiritual Exercises for Renewal of Jesuit Chansms (Mar. 


15/3-4 Padberg, The Society True to Itself: A Brief History of the 32nd General Congregation of the 

Society of Jesus (May-Sept. 1983) 

15/5-16/1 Tetlow, Jesuits' Mission in Higher Education (Nov. 1983-Jan. 1984) 

16/2 O'Malley, To Travel to Any Part of the World: Jeronimo Nadal and the Jesuit Vocation (Mar. 


16/3 O'Hanlon, Integration of Christian Practices: A Western Christian Looks East (May 1984) 

16/4 Carlson, "A Faith Lived Out of Doors": Ongoing Formation (Sept. 1984) 

16/5 Kinerk, Eliciting Great Desires: Their Place in the Spirituality of the Society of Jesus (Nov. 1984) 

17/1 Spohn, St. Paul on Apostolic Celibacy and the Body of Christ (Jan. 1985) 

17/2 Daley, "In Ten Thousand Places": Christian Universality and the Jesuit Mission (Mar. 1985) 

17/3 Tetlow, Dialogue on the Sexual Maturing of Celibates (May 1985) 

17/4 Spohn, Coleman, Clarke, Henriot, Jesuits and Peacemaking (Sept. 1985) 

17/5 Kinerk, When Jesuits Pray: A Perspective on the Prayer of Apostolic Persons (Nov. 1985) 

18/1 Gelpi, The Converting Jesuit (Jan. 1986). 

18/2 Beirne, Compass and Catalyst: The Ministry of Administration. (Mar. 1986) 

18/3 McCormick, Bishops as Teachers and Jesuits as Listeners (May 1986) 

18/5 Tetlow, The Transformation of Jesuit Poverty (Nov. 1986). 

19/1 Staudenmaier, United States Technology and Adult Commitment (Jan. 1987) 

19/2 Appleyard, Languages We Use: Talking about Religious Experience (Mar. 1987) 

19/5 Endean, Who Do You Say Ignatius Is? Jesuit Fundamentalism and Beyond (Nov. 1987) 

20/1 Brackley, Downward Mobility: Social Implications of St. Ignatius's Two Standards (Jan. 1988) 

20/2 Padberg, How We Live Where We Live (Mar. 1988) 

20/3 Hayes, Padberg, Staudenmaier, Symbols, Devotions, and Jesuits (May 1988) 

20/4 McGovern, Jesuit Education and Jesuit Spirituality (Sept. 1988) 

20/5 Barry, Jesuit Formation Today: An Invitation to Dialogue and Involvement (Nov. 1988) 

21/1 Wilson, Where Do We Belong? United States Jesuits and Their Memberships (Jan. 1989) 

21/2 Demoustier, Calvez, et al., The Disturbing Subject: The Option for the Poor (Mar. 1989) 

21/3 Soukup, Jesuit Response to the Communication Revolution (May 1989) 

22/1 Carroll, The Spiritual Exercises in Everyday Life (Jan. 1990) 

22/2 Bracken, Jesuit Spirituality from a Process Prospective (March 1990) 

22/3 Shepherd, Fire for a Weekend: An Experience of the Exercises (May 1990) 

22/4 O'Sullivan, Trust Your Feelings, but Use Your Head (Sept. 1990) 

22/5 Coleman, A Company of Critics: Jesuits and the Intellectual Life (Nov. 1990) 

23/1 Houdek, The Road Too Often Traveled (Jan. 1991) 

23/2 DiGiacomo, Ministering to the Young (March 1991) 

23/3 Begheyn and Bogart, A Bibliography on St. Ignatius's Spiritual Exercises (May 1991) 

23/4 Shelton, Reflections on the Mental Health of Jesuits (Sept. 1991) 

23/5 Toolan, "Nature Is a Heraclitean Fire" (Nov. 1991) 

24/1 Houdek, Jesuit Prayer and Jesuit Ministry: Context and Possibilities (Jan. 1992) 

24/2 Smolich, Testing the Water: Jesuits Accompanying the Poor (March 1992) 

24/3 Hassel, Jesus Christ Changing Yesterday, Today, and Forever (May 1992) 

24/4 Shelton, Toward Healthy Jesuit Community Living (Sept. 1992) 

24/5 Cook, Jesus' Parables and the Faith That Does Justice (Nov. 1992) 

25/2 Donahue, What Does the Lord Require? (March 1993)— ONCE AGAIN AVAILABLE 

25/3 Padberg, Ignatius, the Popes, and Realistic Reverence (May 1993) 

25/4 Stahel, Toward General Congregation 34 (Sept. 1993) 

25/5 Baldovin, Christian Liturgy: An Annotated Bibliography (Nov. 1993) 

26/1 Tetlow, The Most Postmodern Prayer 0an. 1994) 

26/2 Murphy, The Many Ways of Justice (March 1994) 

26/3 Staudenmaier, To Fall in Love with the World (May 1994) 

26/4 Foley, Stepping into the River (Sept. 1994) 

26/5 Landy, Myths That Shape Us (Nov. 1994) 

27/1 Daley, "To Be More like Christ" (Jan. 1995) 

27/2 Schmidt, Portraits and Landscapes (March 1995) 

27/3 Stockhausen, I'd Love to, hut I Don't Have the Time (May 1995) 

27/4 Anderson, Jesuits in Jail, Ignatius to the Present (Sept. 1995) 

27/5 Shelton, Friendship in Jesuit Life (Nov. 1995) 

28/1 Begheyn, Bibliography on the History of the Jesuits (Jan. 1996) 

28/2 Veale, Saint Ignatius Speaks about "Ignatian Prayer" (March 1996) 

28/3 Clooney, In Ten Thousand Places, in Every Blade of Grass (May 1996) 

28/4 Starkloff, "As Different As Night and Day" (Sept. 1996) 

28/5 Beckett, Listening to Our History (Nov. 1996) 

29/1 Hamm, Preaching Biblical Justice (Jan. 1997) 

29/2 Padberg, The Three Forgotten Founders (March 1997) 

29/3 Byrne, Jesuits and Parish Ministry (May 1997) 

29/4 Keenan, Are Informationes Ethical? (Sept. 1997) 

29/5 Ferlita, The Road to Bethlehem-Is It Level or Winding? (Nov. 1997) 

30/1 Shore, The Vita Christi of Ludolph of Saxony and Its Influence on the Spiritual Exercises of 

Ignatius of Loyola (Jan. 1998) 

30/2 Starkloff, "I'm No Theologian, but . . . (or So . . . )?" (March 1998) 

30/3 Torrens, The Word That Clamors (May 1998) 

30/4 Petrik, "Being Sent" (Sept. 1998) 

30/5 Jackson, "One and the Same Vocation" (Nov. 1998) 

31/1 Clifford, Scripture and the Exercises (Jan. 1999) 

31/2 Toohig, Physics Research, a Search for God (March 1999) 

31/3 Fagin, Fidelity in the Church— Then and Now (May 1999) 

31/4 Schineller, Pilgrim Journey of Ignatius (Sept. 1999) 

31/5 Fullam, Juana, S.J.: Status of Women in the Society (Nov. 1999) 

32/1 Langan, The Good of Obedience in a Culture of Autonomy (Jan. 2000) 

32/2 Blake, Listen with Your Eyes (March 2000) 

32/3 Shelton, When a Jesuit Counsels Others (May 2000) 

32/4 Barry, Past, Present, and Future (Sept. 2000) 

32/5 Starkloff, Pilgrimage Re-envisioned (Nov. 2000) 

33/1 Kolvenbach et al., Faith, Justice, and American Jesuit Higher Education (Jan. 2001) 

33/2 Keenan, Unexpected Consequences: Parsons's Christian Directory (March 2001) 

33/3 Arrupe, Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism (May 2001) 

Images and Emblems from the Early Jesuit 
Tradition to Use in Desktop Publishing or 

on the Web 


Thomas Rochford, S.J., 
and J. J. Mueller, S.J. 

A collection of 239 royalty-free images already 
formatted for Windows and Macintosh 

The Institute of Jesuit Sources 
3601 Lindell Blvd. 
St. Louis, MO 63108 

tel: [314] 977-7257 

fax: [314] 977-7263 $25.00 

e-mail: plus postage 



An annual subscription is provided by the ten United States provinces 
for U.S. Jesuits living in the United States and U.S. Jesuits who are still 
members of a U.S. province but living outside the United States. 


Subscriptions to Studies: 

U.S.: one year, $18; two years, $35 

Canada and Mexico: one year, $26; two years, $50 

All other destinations: one year, $29; two years, $55 

*** All payments must be in U.S. funds. *** 


Change-of-address information (please include former address label 
if possible) should be sent to 


Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 
3601 Lindell Boulevard 
St. Louis, MO 63108 

> SINGLE ISSUES (Current or Past): 

The price for single copies of current or past issues is S3. 00, plus 
postage and handling charges. Double issues (for example, 5/1-2, 8/2-3, 9/1-2, 
etc.) are $6.00 each, plus postage and handling. 

The Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality 
3601 Lindell Boulevard 
St. Louis, MO 63108 

U.S. Postage 


St. Louis, Missouri 
Permit No. 63 

Serials Department 
Oneill Library 
Boston College 
chestnut HOI m G£4C>7